Romans 5

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Therefore, having been justified [on a particular occasion] out of belief,a [we] havesome manuscripts: let us have peace before God through our lord Jesus Christ, 2through whom also [we] have had the solemn approachlit. the act of bringing / raising something up (as if to eat)b [by belief]some manuscripts omit unto this grace in which [we] have stood, and [we] boasthere and in verse 3, the same construction could mean let us boast upon hope of the glory of God. 3And not only [this], but also [we] boast in the afflictions,lit. pressures knowingBy this point in history, this verb in this construction always means “to know”; but etymologically, it comes from the perfect tense of “to see”; thus, here it means, having seen that affliction works athere and throughout, (achieves by labor) endurance,lit. the remaining-behindc 4and endurance [works at] character,lit. proof and character [works at] hope. 5And hope does not dishonor,d because the loveἀγάπη, agape of God has been poured out in our hearts through a holy spirit, the [one] having been given [on a particular occasion] to us. 6For furthermore, Christ, with us still beinggenitive absolute weak,(sickly)other manuscripts:
– for furthermore, Christ, with us being weak,
– furthermore, Christ, with us being weak,
– if at least Christ, with us still being weak,
– unto some [end], Christ, with us still being weak,
– unto some [end], Christ, with us being weak,
– Christ, with us being weak,
died according to due measure(at [the] exact time) on behalf ofhere and throughout, lit. over [the] ungodly. 7For someone will die on behalf of a just [man]; for, on behalf of the good [man], someone also dares to die; 8but on the other hand, God combines his own loveἀγάπη, agape into us, that with us still being erroneous,here and throughout, (sinners) Christ died on our behalf.e 9Therefore, having been very much justified [on a particular occasion] now in his blood, [we] shall be saved through him from [his] wrath.lit. impulsef 10For if, being hateful,(hated) [we] were changedhere and through the end of the paragraph, (reconciled) [on a particular occasion] by God through the death of his son, then, having been changed very much, [we] will be saved in his life;g 11and not only [this], but also [we are] boasting in God through our lord Jesus Christ, through whom now [we] seized [on a particular occasion] the change.(reconciliation)

12On account of this, just as through one man, failure came into the cosmosh [on a particular occasion], and through failure, deathi [came into the cosmos], and thus into all menhere and through the end of the chapter, (persons) death came through,(passed through, reached) upon which [point/time] all [men] died; 13for until [the] law, failure was in [the] cosmos, but [on the other hand] failure is not put in the account with [the] law not being,(without [the] law)j 14but death ruled from Adam as far as Moses evenlit. and upon the [ones] not erring inlit. upon the transgression of Adam, who is a cast(model / type); lit. beating of the [one] being destined.k

15But (the favor is not like the blunder);lit. not as the blunder, thus also [is] the favor for if to the blunder of one [man], the many died, much morelit. very much the grace of God and the gift in grace, [that is, in] the [grace] of the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many. 16And [it did] not [abound] as the gift through the one [man] having failed [on a particular occasion]; for on the one hand, the judgment fromlit. out of one [blunder] [leads] unto condemnation, but on the other hand, the gift from many blunders [leads] unto justification.lit. a just [act] 17For if, by the blunder of the one [man], death ruled through the one [man], much morelit. very much the [ones] seizing in [this] life the abundance of the grace and [the abundance] of the gift of justice will rule through the one Jesus Christ. 18Then therefore as through one blunder into all men [it has come] unto condemnation, thus also through one just [act] into all men [it has come] unto justification of life;l 19for just as through the disobediencelit. misunderstanding of the one man, the many becamehere and in the next clause, lit. were put/set down [as] erroneous, thus also through the obedience of the one [man], the many will become just.m 20But [the] law came in alongside, in order that the blunder might be more than enough;(superfluous)n but where the error was more than enough, grace over-abounded,(abounded even more) 21in order that, just as the error ruled in death, thus also grace may rule through justice unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our lord.o

a having been justified…out of belief: cf. Romans 3:24, 28
b through whom also…the solemn approach: cf. Ephesians 2:18; 3:12
c verse 3: cf. James 1:2-3; I Peter 1:5-7
d And hope does not dishonor: cf. Psalm 22:5; 25:20; Hebrews 6:18-19
e verse 8: cf. John 3:16; I John 4:10
f [we] shall be…from [his] wrath: cf. Romans 1:18; 2:5, 8
g verse 10: cf. Romans 8:7-8
h through one man…into the cosmos: cf. Genesis 2:17; 3:6, 19
i through failure, death: cf. Romans 6:23
j but [on the…law not being: cf. Romans 4:15
k who is a…[one] being destined: cf. I Corinthians 15:21-22, 45
l verse 18: cf. I Corinthians 15:22
m thus also through…will become just: cf. Isaiah 53:11
n But [the] law…more than enough: cf. Romans 4:15; 7:8; Galatians 3:19
o verse 21: cf. Romans 6:23

Romans 4

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1What therefore do [we] say that Abraham, our forefather according to flesh, has found?indirect statement using accusative + infinitive constructionsome manuscripts: that Abraham, our father according to flesh, has found?; others: [about] Abraham, our forefather according to flesh?; others: [about] Abraham, our father according to flesh? 2For if Abraham out of works was justified [on a particular occasion], [he] has a boast, but not before God. 3For what does the writingi.e., Scripture say? “But Abraham believed God [on a particular occasion] and [it] was calculatedhere, and throughout, (counted) for him unto justice.”here, and throughout, (righteousness)a 4But on the other hand, to the [one] working, the pay is not calculated according to grace, but according to debt,b 5but to the [one] not working, but rather believing upon the [one] justifying the ungodly, his beliefhere, and throughout, (faith) is calculated unto justice; 6exactly as-περ strengthens καθά, which normally means “just as” David saysc [about] the blessing of the person to whom God calculates justice separate from works, 7“Blessed [are they] whose lawlessnesses were sent away and whose errorshere and throughout, (sins) were covered up [on a particular occasion]; 8blessed [is the] man whose error the lord [absolutely] will not countοὐ μὴ + future indicative is an emphatic denial, so this could also be translated will never count/calculate.” 9[Is] this blessing, therefore, upon [only] the circumcision, or also upon the uncircumcision? For we say, “Belief was calculated for Abraham unto justice.”d 10How therefore was it calculated? To [him] being in the circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision but in uncircumcision; 11and he took the mark of circumcision as a seal(sign); lit. signet of the justice of belief, the belief [while] in uncircumcision,e in order that he may behere and in the next clause, εἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause a father of all the [ones] believing through uncircumcision, in order that justice may be calculated [on a particular occasion] for them [also],some manuscripts omit 12and [in order that he may be] a father of the circumcisedlit. circumcision, for the [ones] not [included] out of circumcision only, but also for them being in line with the footsteps of the belief of our father Abraham, [the belief he had while] in uncircumcision.

13For not through [the] law [did] the promiselit. command, summons (as in court) [come] to Abraham or to his seed,f that he is the heir of [the] cosmos,g but through [the] justice of belief. 14For if the heirs [are heirs] out of [the] law, the belief has been emptied and the promise has been abolished;lit. left unusedh 15for the law works at(achieves by labor) wrath;lit. impulse but on the other hand,some manuscripts: for where there is not a law, neither [is there] an overstepping.i 16On account of this, [justice is] from belief, in order that [it may be]ἴνα + implied subjunctive verb purpose clause according to grace, in order that the promise may beεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause steady(firm / sure / certain) for every seed, not only for the [one] from the law, but also for the [one] from [the] belief of Abraham,indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew, so genitive case is assumed; with its placement, it could hypothetically also modify νόμου, the law, and σπέρματι, the seed who is a father of us all,j 17just as [it] is writtenk that “I have put you as a father of many nations,” beforelit. opposite [the one] in whom [he] believed [on a particular occasion], God, the [one] making the dead alive and calling the [things] not being as being;l 18who believed beyond hope upon hope in order that he may becomeεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause “a father of many nations” according to the word,lit. the [thing] having been said “Thus will be your seed,”m 19and not having been weak [on a particular occasion] in belief, [he] consideredsome manuscripts: did not consider his own flesh having [already] been made dead, [since he was] existing about one hundred years,n and [he considered] the death of the womb [of] Sarah;like Ἀβραάμ, Σάρρας is an indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew; genitive case is assumed by context 20but [he] did not waverlit. was not thoroughly separated [on any particular occasion] to unbelief unto the promise of God, but [he] was empowered with belief, having given[on a particular occasion] glory to God 21and having been fully satisfied[on a particular occasion] that the [one] powerful to promise is also [powerful] to do.(make / enact) 22Wherefore [also]some manuscripts omit “[it] was calculated for him unto justice.”o 23But [it] was not written on his account only, [i.e.,] that [it] was calculated for him, 24but also on our account,p for whom [it] is destined to be calculated, for the [ones] [of us] believing upon the [one] having roused Jesus our Lord out of [the] dead,q 25who was handed over [on a particular occasion] on account of our blunders(missteps)r and was roused(awoke) [on a particular occasion] on account of our justification.s

a But Abraham believed…him unto justice: Genesis 15:6; cf. Galatians 3:6; James 2:23
b verse 4: cf. Romans 11:6
c says: Psalm 32:1-2
d Belief was calculated…Abraham unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
e he took the…[while] in uncircumcision: cf. Genesis 17:10-11
f to his seed: cf. Galatians 3:29
g that he is…of [the] cosmos: cf. Genesis 18:18; 22:17-18
h verse 14: cf. Galatians 3:18
i there is not…there] an overstepping: cf. Romans 3:20; 5:13; 7:8
j for the [one]…of us all: cf. Galatians 3:7
k written: Genesis 17:5
l calling the [things]…being as being: cf. Isaiah 48:13
m Thus will be your seed: cf. Genesis 15:5
n [since he was]…one hundred years: cf. Genesis 17:17
o [it] was calculated…him unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
p But [it] was…on our account: cf. Romans 15:4
q the [one] having…of [the] dead: cf. I Peter 1:21
r who was handed…of our blunders: cf. Isaiah 53:4-5
s was roused [on…of our justification: cf. I Corinthians 15:17

Romans 3

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1What therefore is the more [thing]i.e., the benefit of [being] Jewish, or what is the advantage of circumcision? 2Much according to every way. [For]The presence or position of this word is disputed. first, on the one hand, that they were entrustedlit. they were believed in [on a particular occasion] with the oracles of God.a 3For what [then]? If some [men] disbelieved,(had no faith) will their disbelief(lack of faith) nullify the belief(faith); as above and throughout below, “belief” and “faith” are interchangeable, though they have different connotations in English; literally (in terms of structure), the text is closer to “belief,” but has the implications of theological “faith” in God?b 4Would that it not come to behere and throughout, lit. become; but on the other hand let God come to be true, and on the other hand [let] every person [come to be] a liar,c just as it has been written,d “In order that you may be justifiedpurpose clause of ὅπως + subjunctive mood + ἄν in your words and [in order that] you may prevail(be victorious)purpose clause of ὅπως + future indicative in [the time] that you are judgedverbal noun of accusative + infinitive indirect statement construction.” 5But if on the other hand our injustice(unrighteousness) combines with [the] justicehere and throughout, (righteousness); in general, where I have rendered “just” or “justice” (or their converses), you may infer the Christian concept of “righteous” or “righteousness” (or their converses) of God, what shall [we] say? God, the [one] inflictinglit. bringing upon wrath [is] not unjust, [is he]?construction expects negative response I am speaking(I speak) according to man. 6Would that it not come to be; otherwise, how will God judge the cosmos? 7But on the other hand,some manuscripts: for; others omit if the truth of God aboundedlit. outnumbered in falsehood unto his glory, whylit. what still am I also judged as an erroneous [man](a sinner)? 8[Why] not both just as [we] are blasphemed and just as some [men] assert that we say,accusative + infinitive indirect statement “We did the bad [things] in order that the good [things] may come”?singular verb with neuter plural subject; common constructione Of whomi.e., the slanderers and blasphemers the judgmentlit. decision; (condemnation) is legitimate.

9What therefore? Are [we] in the lead?lit. Do we jut out? Not by any means; for [we] accused beforehand(charged already) [on a particular occasion] both Jews and Greeks all to be under error,here and throughout, (sin)f 10just as it has been writteng that “There is not a just [man], not even one, 11there is not [one] understandingThis word is not unambiguous. When it appears without diacritics, as it might have in the oldest texts, it could be from σύνειμι, meaning “to be with, to be acquainted with, to live with, to associate with”; or from σύνειμι, meaning “to go with, to assemble, to gather”; or from συνίζω, meaning “to sit together, to fall together”; or from συνίημι, meaning “to bring together, to perceive, to understand”. With the diacritics used by most editors, it can only mean this last option; this is also the most sensible translation, and it is the one we take. [God], there is not [one] seeking out God. 12All [men] pervertedlit. bended outward [on a particular occasion] [and] at the same time [they] were rendered useless(damaged) [on a particular occasion]; there is not [one] doing goodnesses,(kindnesses) [there is not]some manuscripts include this, others omit; which is correct remains disputed up toin a sense, less than or equal to one. 13Their larynx(throat) [is] a laid-open tomb,lit. funeral-rite they were dealing treacherouslyThis verb is from δολιόω, which is an omicron-contract verb using δόλιος as a stem. Omicron-contracts in general are “factitive,” meaning that doing an omicron-contract verb “makes” the noun or adjective root. Thus, this means, “they were making treacherous [things],” or “they were making treachery.” — The verb is also in the imperfect tense, giving it imperfective aspect, which means that it occurred frequently, habitually, or over time. with their tongues,h venom of aspslit. shields; here, this is only the etymological meaning; asps were likely named thus for their appearance [is] under their lips;ὑπό + accusative suggests place to which; thus, this implies a deliberate state, such that venom has been put under their lips, rather than occurring naturally or by accidenti 14whose mouth is full of ruin(curse); lit. prayer and of bitterness,j 15their feet are quicklit. sharp to pour out blood [on a particular occasion],k 16[there is] fracture and hardship in their ways,lit. roads 17and a way of peace they do not know.lit. they did not perceive/come to know [on a particular occasion] 18There is not a fear of God opposite(before/in front of) their eyes.”l 19But [on the other hand] [we] know that as many [things] as the law says, [it] prattles [them] to the [ones] under the law, in order that every mouth may be fenced in(closed) [on a particular occasion] and the whole cosmos may [on a particular occasion] become liable for trial to God;i.e., the injured party, who may take them to trial 20becauselit. through [the following points], that out of works of [the] law, no flesh will belit. every flesh will not be justified face-to-face with him,m for through [the] law [there is] recognition(knowledge) of error.n

21But now [on the other hand], separate from the law, [the] justice of God has been made manifest, having been given as testimony by the law and the prophets,o 22but [on the other hand] [it is the] justice of God through faith in Jesus Christ into allsome manuscripts: upon all; others: into all and upon all the [ones] believing.p For [there] is not a distinction, 23for all [men] erred [on a particular occasion] and are behindq the glory of God, 24being justified as a giftadverbial accusative by his graceinstrumental dativer through the ransoming, the [ransoming] in Christ Jesus;s 25which God set out as propitiatory through [the] faithsome manuscripts: through faith; others: through the faith; others: of faith; others omit in his bloodt unto a demonstration of his justice on account of the dismissal of the failures(faults); like what is rendered “erroneous” in v7, shares a root with ἁμαρτάνω, lit. “to miss the mark,” as with a spear (which very word is rendered “erred” in v23); it was the only Greek word that Jews and Christians could come up with to mean “sin” having come before 26in the forbearancelit. holding-back of God, towards the demonstration of his justice in the now-time, in order that he may be justεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause and [in order that he may be the one] justifying the [one] [who lives] out of faith in Jesus.

27Where therefore [is] the boasting? It was shut out [on a particular occasion]. Through what kind of law? [The law] of works? Not at all,The form οὐχί adds some emphasis, but the sense is basically no; in colloquial vulgarity, we might say, “Hell no!” but through a law of faith. 28Forsome manuscripts: therefore [we] calculate that man is justifiedaccusative + infinitive indirect statement by faith separate from works of [the] law.u 29Or [is] the God of the Jews only [of the Jews]? [Is he] not also [the God] of nations?here and immediately following, (peoples) Yes, also of nations,v 30if indeed God [is] one [God],w who will justify circumcision out of faith and uncircumcision through faith.x 31Therefore do [we] leave idle [the] law through faith? Not by any means; but we make [the] law stand(establish/set up [the] law).y

a they were entrusted…oracles of God: cf. Deuteronomy 4:7-8; Psalm 103:7; 147:19-20; Romans 9:4
b will their disbelief…belief in God: cf. Romans 9:6; 11:29; II Timothy 2:13
c and on the…be] a liar: cf. Psalm 116:11
d written,: Psalm 51:4
e “We did the…[things] may come: cf. Romans 6:1
f for [we] accused…be under error: cf. Romans 1:18-2:24; 3:23
g written: through v12, cf. Psalm 14:1-3; 53:1-3; Ecclesiastes 7:20
h Their larynx [is…with their tongues: cf. Psalm 5:9
i venom of asps…under their lips: cf. Psalm 140:3
j verse 14: cf. Psalm 10:7
k verse 15: through v17, cf. Isaiah 59:7-8; Proverbs 1:16
l verse 18: cf. Psalm 36:1
m no flesh will…face-to-face with him: cf. Psalm 143:2; Galatians 2:16
n for through [the…recognition of error: cf. Romans 7:7
o having been given…and the prophets: cf. Acts 10:43
p but [on the…the [ones] believing: cf. Romans 1:17; Galatians 2:16
q are behind: cf. Romans 3:9
r being justified as…by his grace: cf. Ephesians 2:8
s through the ransoming…in Christ Jesus: cf. Romans 5:1
t God set out…in his blood: cf. Ephesians 1:7
u verse 28: cf. Galatians 2:16
v verse 29: cf. Romans 10:12
w God [is] one [God],: cf. Deuteronomy 6:4; Galatians 3:20
x who will justify…uncircumcision through faith: cf. Romans 4:11-12
y verse 31: cf. Matthew 5:17; Romans 4:3; 8:4

Romans 2

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Wherefore [thou] are (inexcusable / undefended), O every person who judges(who chooses, who condemns); lit. judging; for in what [thou] judge anotherlit. the different [one], [thou] hand down judgment to(condemn) thyself,a for [thou] practice the same [things] [which thou judge]lit. judging which. 2But [on the other hand] we know that the judgment of God is according to truthWe can be sure that this judgment is accurate and final–but it is still not our place to pass it. about the ones practicing [things] such as these. 3But [on the other hand] do [thou] consider(calculate) this, O person, the [one] judging the [ones] doing [things] such as these and [himself] doing them, that thou will flee the judgment of God?This is an indirect question, not a deliberative subjunctive. This should not be translated, “should thou flee the judgment of God?” Reader take note: if you can pass judgment on others, how can you think to escape the true judgment of God? Cf. Matthew 18. 4Or do [thou] think little oflit. look down upon the wealth of his goodness and of [his] forbearancelit. holding-back and of [his] long-suffering, not recognizing(not conceptualizing) that the good [thing] of God leads thou into repentance?b 5But [on the other hand] according to thy hardness and [thy] unrepentant heart, [thou] hoard for thyself wrath in a day of wrath and [in a day] of a revelationlit. an uncovering of [the] righteous judgment of God, 6who will restorelit. give up to each according to his deeds;c 7to the [ones] seeking according to endurancelit. remaining-behindI.e., without ceasing, always pressing on, heedless of hindrance and undaunted by danger. [the] glory of a good deed and [the] honor [of a good deed] and immortality(incorruption), [he will restore] eternal lifelit. life lasting an age; “agelong = eternal” is idiomatic by this point; there is no “secret meaning” having to do with ages or numerology here; 8[on the other hand] to the [ones] also being disobedient out of selfish ambition to the truth [and rather] being persuaded to injustice, wrath and passion(anger) [will be given]As elsewhere in his writings, Paul “forgets” the structure of his sentence and switches the case of his parallel ideas, here changing to the nominative.. 9Pressure and confinement [will be given] unto every life(spirit) of man, the [one] working at the bad,d both Jewish first and Greek;e 10but glorylit. expectation / notion and honor and peace [will be given] to everyone working at the good, both to Jewish first and to Greek; 11for [there] is not respect of persons(favoritism) at God’s house.(beside God / next to God)f 12For as many as erredhere and throughout, (sinned) [on a particular occasion] lawlessly, they will also be utterly destroyed lawlessly, and as many as erred [on a particular occasion] in [the] law, they will be judgedlit. separated through [the] law; 13for the hearers of [the] law [are] not just(righteous) at God’s house,(beside God / next to God) but the doers of [the] law will be justified(pronounced righteous).g 14For whenever peoples,here and below, (nations) the [ones] not having [the] law, do the [things] of the law by nature,instrumental dative these [peoples], not having [the] law, are a law unto themselves;h 15whosoever indicates the work of the law [to be] written on their hearts, withgenitive absolute their conscience supporting themhere, αὐτῶν is both a possessive genitive modifying τῆς συνειδήσεως and the gentive object of συμμαρτυρούσης, but only appears once and, [alternating] between one and the other, withgenitive absolute [their] thoughts accusing or else also defending [them], 16on [the] day when God judges the secret [things] of men according to my gospeli through Christ Jesussome manuscripts: Jesus Christ, others: Jesus Christ our Lord.

17But [on the other hand] if thou call [thyself] Jewish and rely upon [the] law and boastlit. speak loudly in God 18and [thou] perceive the will and [thou] approvelit. test the [things] that make a difference,lit. differing / carrying acrossj teaching [them] out of the law, 19and [thou] has persuaded thyself to be a guide of [the] blind,k a light of the [ones] in darkness, an educator of [the] senseless, a teacher of infants, having the form of the knowledge and of the truth in the law;l 21[as], therefore, the [one] teaching another, do [thou] not teach thyself? [As] the [one] proclaiming not to steal, do [thou] steal?m 22[As] the [one] sayinglit. choosing; again, this is idiomatic long before the time of the New Testament not to commit adultery, do [thou] commit adultery? [As] the [one] feeling sick at(loathing) idols,lit. phantoms do [thou] rob temples?(commit sacrilege) 23[As] the [one] who boastslit. speaks loudly in [the] law, do [thou] through the transgressionlit. deviation of the law dishonor the God [of the law]?Here, τοῦ νόμου modifies both τῆς παραβάσεως and τὸν θεόν, though it only appears once 24For “the name of God, through you, is blasphemed in the nations,”n just as [it] is written. 25For [on the one hand] circumcision is a help, ifhere, as immediately following, a present general conditional [thou] practice [the] law; but if, [on the other hand], [thou] are a transgressor of [the] law, thy circumcision becomes uncircumcisionhere and throughout, lit. a foreskin.o 26If,future more vivid conditional therefore, the uncircumcisionhere and the subject of v27, metonymy keepslit. guards the righteous acts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be counted aslit. into circumcision?p 27And the uncircumcision from his nature,probably meaning “in the body,” but perhaps also, “from birth” fulfilling the law, will judge thee, the [one] through [the] letter and [the] circumcision [who is a] transgressor of [the] law.some manuscripts pose this verse as a question 28For it is not the [one] [who is Jewish] in the visible [that] is Jewish, nor is circumcision in the visible [and] in [the] flesh,q 29but the [one] [who is Jewish] in secret [is] Jewish, and [the] circumcision of [the] heart [is] in [the] spiritr [and] not [in the] letter, in which placelit. where; i.e., the spirit approval [comes] not from men but from God.s

a for in what…judgment to thyself: cf. Matthew 7:2; Luke 6:37; John 8:7
b the good [thing]…thou into repentance: cf. II Peter 3:15
c verse 6: cf. Psalm 62:12; Proverbs 24:12; Sirach 16:14; Matthew 16:27; John 5:29; II Corinthians 5:10
d Pressure and confinement…at the bad: cf. II Thessalonians 1:8
e both Jewish first and Greek: cf. Romans 1:16
f verse 11: cf. Deuteronomy 10:17; II Chronicles 19:7; Acts 10:34; Galatians 2:6; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:25; I Peter 1:17
g verse 13: cf. Matthew 7:21; James 1:22, 25; I John 3:7
h verse 14: cf. Acts 10:35
i according to my gospel: cf. II Timothy 2:8
j [thou] approve the…make a difference: cf. Philippians 1:10
k and [thou] has…of [the] blind: cf. Matthew 15:14; Luke 18:9
l having the form…in the law: cf. II Timothy 3:15
m verse 21: cf. Psalm 50:16-21; Matthew 23:3-4
n the name of…in the nations: cf. Isaiah 52:5; Ezekiel 36:20
o but if, [on…circumcision becomes uncircumcision: cf. Jeremiah 4:4; 9:25
p verse 26: cf. Galatians 5:6
q verse 28: cf. John 7:24; 8:15, 39
r [the] circumcision of…in [the] spirit: cf. Deuteronomy 30:6; Colossians 2:11
s approval [comes] not…but from God: cf. I Corinthians 4:5; II Corinthians 10:18

Romans 1

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Paul, a slave of Christ Jesussome manuscripts: Jesus Christ, a called(invited) apostle having been set apart into [the] gospel of God,a 2whoi.e., God promised before[of his own free will] implied by verb in many cases through his prophets in holy writingsb 3about his son, the one having been born out of a seed of Davidc according to flesh,d 4the one having been (ordained / determined / separated / demarcated) [as] a son of God in power according to a spirit of holiness out of a resurrection of [the] dead,e Jesus Christ our lord, 5through whom we took(seized) grace and a send-off(apostleship) into obedience of faith in all the company [called] by the holy name,f 6in which [company] you also are called bylit. of Jesus Christ, 7to all the [ones] being in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts beloved bylit. of God, called holy,g grace to you and peace from God your father and [from] [the] lord Jesus Christ.h

8First, on the one hand, [I] am thankful to my God through Jesus Christ about all of you that your faith is being (proclaimed / declared / recounted) in all the world(the whole world). 9For God is my witness,i whomi.e., God [I] serve in my spirit(breath) in the gospel of his son, how incessantly [I] make (remembrance / mention / commemoration) of you,j 10andadverbial ἐπί, lit. as well always [that God is] lacking not at all in my prayers, [and that] [now is the time]lit. already sometime; cf. Liddell-Scott-Jones definition II of ἤδη [I] will succeedlit. have a prosperous journey or be helped en route in the will of God to come to you.k 11 For [I] desire besides to see you, in order that [I] may give some share of spiritual grace to you toward your being supportedlit. affixed [on a particular occasion], 12and this [action] is to be exhorted together in you through the in-each-other faith, both yours and mine. 13And [I] am not willingsome manuscripts: [we] are not willing; others: [I] do not (intend / think) to ignore you, brothers, because [I] often set out [on particular occasions] to come to you, and [I] was prevented(hindered) [on particular occasions] even up to nowlit. hitherto, in order that [I] may have [on a particular occasion] some fruitl also in you just aslit. both in you and just as in the remaining company. 14[I] am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise [men] and to unthinkinglit. thoughtless [men], 15 thus [it is] an eager [thing] forlit. concerning me to preach the gospel to you also, the ones in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts.

16For [I] am not ashamed at the gospel,m for [the] power of God is forlit. into salvation for everyone who believes,lit. believingn both Jewish first and Greek.o 17For [the] righteousness of God in him is made known(uncovered) out of faith into faith,p just as it is written,q “But the righteous [man] out of faithalmost definitely modifies both δίκαιος and ζήσεται will live.”r

18For the wrath of God is made known(uncovered) from [the] sky(heaven) upon every impiety and injustice of men,s those [men] (holding fast / occupying / detaining) the truth in injustice,t 19because the knowable [thing] of God is visible in them; for God made it visible(revealed it) to them.u 20For the unseen ideas(thoughts about) of him are perceived from [the] founding of [the] cosmos [in] the works [in the cosmos]interpolation; implied; which others of God’s works would Paul be referring to?, and his eternal power and divinity,v so that they are (inexcusable / undefended)lit. unapologized-for, 21because knowing God, [they] did not [on any particular occasion] honorlit. think of [God] as God or give thanks, but [they] brought [him] to naught in their calculations and their witless heart was darkened.(blinded)w 22Claiming to belit. saying [that they] are wise, [they] were made foolsx 23and [they] exchangedhere, and repeated numerously after, lit. altered the glorylit. expectation / notion of the indestructible(incorruptible) God in [the] likeness of [the] image of destructible(corruptible)This kind of parallelism is common in Biblical texts. Also consider Genesis 1; this passage indicates a reversal of God’s creation of Man. man and of flyingnote the progression from the “image of man” to weaker and weaker animals, which are more and more associated with the devil [animals] and of four-footed [animals] and of beasts [that creep]cp. ἑρπετῶν with herpetology, i.e., the study of reptiles.y

24Whereforethe first crime was heresy, paganism, and then later debauchery; cp. to Sodom & Gomorrah, whose first and most significant crime was against hospitality, but they had become just as Paul is describing certain sinners in his day God has given them over in the desires of their hearts into [the] uncleanness of dishonoring their bodies in them,z 25whoever exchanged [on a particular occasion] the truth of God in the falsehood,aa [they] both worshipedlit. feared and servedlit. were enslaved to the [thing] createdab in place of the [one] creating, who is blessed into the ages, 26On account of this, God has given them over into passionslit. happenings of (disgrace / dishonor), for both their females exchanged [on a particular occasion] the natural use into the [use] contrary to nature, 27and likewise the males, sending away the natural use of(intimacy with) the female, inflamedlit. burned out; the verb later came to mean (re)kindled, since any time a candle burned out, it needed to be relit [themselves] in their longing for each other, males among males, working at the obscenity and the disgrace, [and with] them seizing which, there was need of their wandering(going astray).ad 28And just as [they] did not think it fit(refused); lit. did not try to hold God in recognition, God has given them over into a (disreputable / reprobate) mind,cf. v.25: “worshiped and were enslaved”; here, they set their minds on this path and are now impelled along it [so] to do the [things] not proper, 29[the ones] having been filled with every injustice, wickedness, greediness, badnessmanuscript variations:
* badness, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, badness
* badness, fornication, greediness
* fornication, greediness, badness
* fornication, wickedness, greediness, badness
* badness, fornication, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, fornication
* wickedness, greediness
, [the ones] full of ill-will, murder, strife, treacherylit. bait, malignity, slander(falsehood), 30[the ones that are] slanderers, hated of the gods, (insolent / wanton / licentious), arrogantlit. over-bright, braggartslit. vagrants, contrivers of bad things, disobedient to [their] parentslit. fathers, 31witless, faithless, heartlesslit. without natural affection, mercilesssome manuscripts add prior: implacable; 32whoever, observing the ordinances(judgments) of God, [which ordinances state] that the [ones] practicing [things] such as these are deemed worthy of death, not only [whoever] does these [things], but also [whoever] gives their consent to the [ones] practicing [these things].

a having been set…gospel of God,: cf. Acts 9:15; 13:2; Galatians 1:15
b verse 2: cf. Romans 16:25-26; Titus 1:2
c the one having…seed of David: cf. Matthew 22:42; II Timothy 2:8
d according to flesh: cf. Romans 9:5
e the one having…of [the] dead: cf. Acts 13:33
f verse 5: cf. Acts 26:16-18; Romans 15:18; Galatians 2:7, 9
g called holy: cf. I Corinthians 1:2; II Corinthians 1:1
h grace to you…lord Jesus Christ: cf. Numbers 6:25-26; I Corinthians 1:3; II Corinthians 1:2
i For God is my witness: cf. Philippians 1:8; I Thessalonians 2:5, 10
j how incessantly [I]…commemoration) of you: cf. Ephesians 1:16
k lacking not at…come to you: cf. Acts 19:21; Romans 15:23, 32
l [I] may have…occasion] some fruit: cf. John 15:16
m For [I] am…at the gospel: cf. Psalm 119:46; Mark 8:38
n for [the] power…everyone who believes: cf. I Corinthians 1:18, 24
o both Jewish first and Greek: cf. Acts 13:46
p For [the] righteousness…faith into faith: cf. Romans 3:21-22
q written: i.e., in Habakkuk 2:4
r But the righteous…faith will live.: cf. Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38
s For the wrath…injustice of men: cf. Ephesians 5:6; Colossians 3:6
t those [men] (holding…truth in injustice: cf. II Thessalonians 2:12
u verse 19: cf. Acts 14:15-17; 17:24-28
v For the unseen…power and divinity: cf. Job 12:7-9; Psalm 19:1
w [they] brought [him]…heart was darkened: cp. verb ἐματαιώθησαν to Jeremiah 23:16; cf. Ephesians 4:17-18
x verse 22: cf. Jeremiah 10:14; I Corinthians 1:20
y verse 23: cf. Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Psalm 106:20
z verse 24: cf. Acts 14:16
aa whoever exchanged [on…in the falsehood: cf. Jeremiah 13:25; 16:19
ab served the [thing] created: cf. John 8:34; Romans 16
ac the [one] creating,…the ages, amen: cf. Romans 9:5
ad verse 27: cf. Leviticus 18:22; 20:13; I Corinthians 6:9