Romans 1

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Paul, a slave of Christ Jesussome manuscripts: Jesus Christ, a called(invited) apostle having been set apart into [the] gospel of God,a 2whoi.e., God promised before[of his own free will] implied by verb in many cases through his prophets in holy writingsb 3about his son, the one having been born out of a seed of Davidc according to flesh,d 4the one having been (ordained / determined / separated / demarcated) [as] a son of God in power according to a spirit of holiness out of a resurrection of [the] dead,e Jesus Christ our lord, 5through whom we took(seized) grace and a send-off(apostleship) into obedience of faith in all the company [called] by the holy name,f 6in which [company] you also are called bylit. of Jesus Christ, 7to all the [ones] being in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts beloved bylit. of God, called holy,g grace to you and peace from God your father and [from] [the] lord Jesus Christ.h

8First, on the one hand, [I] am thankful to my God through Jesus Christ about all of you that your faith is being (proclaimed / declared / recounted) in all the world(the whole world). 9For God is my witness,i whomi.e., God [I] serve in my spirit(breath) in the gospel of his son, how incessantly [I] make (remembrance / mention / commemoration) of you,j 10andadverbial ἐπί, lit. as well always [that God is] lacking not at all in my prayers, [and that] [now is the time]lit. already sometime; cf. Liddell-Scott-Jones definition II of ἤδη [I] will succeedlit. have a prosperous journey or be helped en route in the will of God to come to you.k 11 For [I] desire besides to see you, in order that [I] may give some share of spiritual grace to you toward your being supportedlit. affixed [on a particular occasion], 12and this [action] is to be exhorted together in you through the in-each-other faith, both yours and mine. 13And [I] am not willingsome manuscripts: [we] are not willing; others: [I] do not (intend / think) to ignore you, brothers, because [I] often set out [on particular occasions] to come to you, and [I] was prevented(hindered) [on particular occasions] even up to nowlit. hitherto, in order that [I] may have [on a particular occasion] some fruitl also in you just aslit. both in you and just as in the remaining company. 14[I] am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise [men] and to unthinkinglit. thoughtless [men], 15 thus [it is] an eager [thing] forlit. concerning me to preach the gospel to you also, the ones in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts.

16For [I] am not ashamed at the gospel,m for [the] power of God is forlit. into salvation for everyone who believes,lit. believingn both Jewish first and Greek.o 17For [the] righteousness of God in him is made known(uncovered) out of faith into faith,p just as it is written,q “But the righteous [man] out of faithalmost definitely modifies both δίκαιος and ζήσεται will live.”r

18For the wrath of God is made known(uncovered) from [the] sky(heaven) upon every impiety and injustice of men,s those [men] (holding fast / occupying / detaining) the truth in injustice,t 19because the knowable [thing] of God is visible in them; for God made it visible(revealed it) to them.u 20For the unseen ideas(thoughts about) of him are perceived from [the] founding of [the] cosmos [in] the works [in the cosmos]interpolation; implied; which others of God’s works would Paul be referring to?, and his eternal power and divinity,v so that they are (inexcusable / undefended)lit. unapologized-for, 21because knowing God, [they] did not [on any particular occasion] honorlit. think of [God] as God or give thanks, but [they] brought [him] to naught in their calculations and their witless heart was darkened.(blinded)w 22Claiming to belit. saying [that they] are wise, [they] were made foolsx 23and [they] exchangedhere, and repeated numerously after, lit. altered the glorylit. expectation / notion of the indestructible(incorruptible) God in [the] likeness of [the] image of destructible(corruptible)This kind of parallelism is common in Biblical texts. Also consider Genesis 1; this passage indicates a reversal of God’s creation of Man. man and of flyingnote the progression from the “image of man” to weaker and weaker animals, which are more and more associated with the devil [animals] and of four-footed [animals] and of beasts [that creep]cp. ἑρπετῶν with herpetology, i.e., the study of reptiles.y

24Whereforethe first crime was heresy, paganism, and then later debauchery; cp. to Sodom & Gomorrah, whose first and most significant crime was against hospitality, but they had become just as Paul is describing certain sinners in his day God has given them over in the desires of their hearts into [the] uncleanness of dishonoring their bodies in them,z 25whoever exchanged [on a particular occasion] the truth of God in the falsehood,aa [they] both worshipedlit. feared and servedlit. were enslaved to the [thing] createdab in place of the [one] creating, who is blessed into the ages, 26On account of this, God has given them over into passionslit. happenings of (disgrace / dishonor), for both their females exchanged [on a particular occasion] the natural use into the [use] contrary to nature, 27and likewise the males, sending away the natural use of(intimacy with) the female, inflamedlit. burned out; the verb later came to mean (re)kindled, since any time a candle burned out, it needed to be relit [themselves] in their longing for each other, males among males, working at the obscenity and the disgrace, [and with] them seizing which, there was need of their wandering(going astray).ad 28And just as [they] did not think it fit(refused); lit. did not try to hold God in recognition, God has given them over into a (disreputable / reprobate) mind,cf. v.25: “worshiped and were enslaved”; here, they set their minds on this path and are now impelled along it [so] to do the [things] not proper, 29[the ones] having been filled with every injustice, wickedness, greediness, badnessmanuscript variations:
* badness, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, badness
* badness, fornication, greediness
* fornication, greediness, badness
* fornication, wickedness, greediness, badness
* badness, fornication, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, fornication
* wickedness, greediness
, [the ones] full of ill-will, murder, strife, treacherylit. bait, malignity, slander(falsehood), 30[the ones that are] slanderers, hated of the gods, (insolent / wanton / licentious), arrogantlit. over-bright, braggartslit. vagrants, contrivers of bad things, disobedient to [their] parentslit. fathers, 31witless, faithless, heartlesslit. without natural affection, mercilesssome manuscripts add prior: implacable; 32whoever, observing the ordinances(judgments) of God, [which ordinances state] that the [ones] practicing [things] such as these are deemed worthy of death, not only [whoever] does these [things], but also [whoever] gives their consent to the [ones] practicing [these things].

a having been set…gospel of God,: cf. Acts 9:15; 13:2; Galatians 1:15
b verse 2: cf. Romans 16:25-26; Titus 1:2
c the one having…seed of David: cf. Matthew 22:42; II Timothy 2:8
d according to flesh: cf. Romans 9:5
e the one having…of [the] dead: cf. Acts 13:33
f verse 5: cf. Acts 26:16-18; Romans 15:18; Galatians 2:7, 9
g called holy: cf. I Corinthians 1:2; II Corinthians 1:1
h grace to you…lord Jesus Christ: cf. Numbers 6:25-26; I Corinthians 1:3; II Corinthians 1:2
i For God is my witness: cf. Philippians 1:8; I Thessalonians 2:5, 10
j how incessantly [I]…commemoration) of you: cf. Ephesians 1:16
k lacking not at…come to you: cf. Acts 19:21; Romans 15:23, 32
l [I] may have…occasion] some fruit: cf. John 15:16
m For [I] am…at the gospel: cf. Psalm 119:46; Mark 8:38
n for [the] power…everyone who believes: cf. I Corinthians 1:18, 24
o both Jewish first and Greek: cf. Acts 13:46
p For [the] righteousness…faith into faith: cf. Romans 3:21-22
q written: i.e., in Habakkuk 2:4
r But the righteous…faith will live.: cf. Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38
s For the wrath…injustice of men: cf. Ephesians 5:6; Colossians 3:6
t those [men] (holding…truth in injustice: cf. II Thessalonians 2:12
u verse 19: cf. Acts 14:15-17; 17:24-28
v For the unseen…power and divinity: cf. Job 12:7-9; Psalm 19:1
w [they] brought [him]…heart was darkened: cp. verb ἐματαιώθησαν to Jeremiah 23:16; cf. Ephesians 4:17-18
x verse 22: cf. Jeremiah 10:14; I Corinthians 1:20
y verse 23: cf. Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Psalm 106:20
z verse 24: cf. Acts 14:16
aa whoever exchanged [on…in the falsehood: cf. Jeremiah 13:25; 16:19
ab served the [thing] created: cf. John 8:34; Romans 16
ac the [one] creating,…the ages, amen: cf. Romans 9:5
ad verse 27: cf. Leviticus 18:22; 20:13; I Corinthians 6:9

New Release: “31 Prayers for Hope”

31 Prayers for HopeI have returned to the “31 Prayers” series with a new installment: “31 Prayers for Hope”! This book is already on sale in print and for the Kindle, and is currently available for free on the Kindle! Pick up a copy right away!

From the back cover:

Discover the power of Scripture-based prayer with these 31 prayers for hope.

Pray one of these prayers each day as you strive to overcome despair and to glorify God in your life this month, or focus on a category of prayers for hope.

Scripture-based prayer means speaking to God using His Word when we cannot find our own. He has given us a grand resource in the Scriptures through which we can find help when we need it most. Discover what God’s Word has to say about hope and find God’s light through prayer.

Categories of prayers for hope:
Hope When All Seems Hopeless
Hope’s Assurance
Hope for the Downtrodden
Hope As Righteousness
Hope in Salvation
Hope for All
Hope As a Gift of God
Hope Producing Joy
Hope for Now and Forever

And if you power through this book and are interested in the next, keep an eye out for more information about the next installment, “31 Prayers for Peace”!

“31 Prayers for Financial Wisdom” FREE for Kindle

Pick up your completely FREE Kindle copy of 31 Prayers for Financial Wisdom today (4/14/13) through Thursday (4/18/13)!

Now that tax season has ended here in these United States, many of you are either receiving refunds or realizing you have to pay more taxes. Now is the time to start praying for more financial wisdom in your life. What do you do with this unexpected bonus? How do you prioritize your bills to cover this unexpected expense? Prayer is a vital part of figuring out how God wants you to prioritize the things in your life. Your life needs to be properly ordered so that you can follow His will more closely.

It has been said that “31 Prayers for Financial Wisdom” is just a book of prayers; this is true. It does not have financial advice, nor am I qualified – either by education or by experience – to give such advice. All I’m offering is what Scripture says on the matter and a few prayers based on Scripture to help you enact God’s will in your life.

If you want Christian financial advice, I suggest paying attention to Dave Ramsey. He is qualified to offer financial advice, and he offers it from a Christian perspective.

Now go pick up your FREE copy of “31 Prayers for Financial Wisdom” for your Kindle device today!

New Year’s Resolution: Finances!

31 Prayers for Financial WisdomYesterday began the Year of Our Lord 2013. It is a year of faith for all Christians as we endeavor to make ourselves known and strengthen our presence both in politics and ethics, in the United States of America and worldwide. It is important that we live out our faith in every area of our lives… and this is especially important in the realm of our financial decisions. Read more »

Book Sale Weekend!

Happy Thanksgiving!

To celebrate this holiday, and to prepare for Christmas giving, we are having sales on both printed and Kindle versions of ALL FIVE “31 Prayers” books. As I’ve mentioned, the print sale is only through the CreateSpace eStore, which can be reached through our purchase pages above. When you are ready to check out, enter the discount code 2SN3DBNR. This will lower the price of every “31 Prayers” book in your cart to the minimum allowed by the store. Remember, you will still need to part shipping, but even so, your purchase will be cheaper than Amazon’s best offer.

If you’re more interested in the Kindle versions, for which you can get a free reading app for any device, then you can use the purchase pages above to find links to each book on All five will be completely free for Kindle!

Happy holidays and enjoy!