Romans 4

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1What therefore do [we] say that Abraham, our forefather according to flesh, has found?indirect statement using accusative + infinitive constructionsome manuscripts: that Abraham, our father according to flesh, has found?; others: [about] Abraham, our forefather according to flesh?; others: [about] Abraham, our father according to flesh? 2For if Abraham out of works was justified [on a particular occasion], [he] has a boast, but not before God. 3For what does the writingi.e., Scripture say? “But Abraham believed God [on a particular occasion] and [it] was calculatedhere, and throughout, (counted) for him unto justice.”here, and throughout, (righteousness)a 4But on the other hand, to the [one] working, the pay is not calculated according to grace, but according to debt,b 5but to the [one] not working, but rather believing upon the [one] justifying the ungodly, his beliefhere, and throughout, (faith) is calculated unto justice; 6exactly as-περ strengthens καθά, which normally means “just as” David saysc [about] the blessing of the person to whom God calculates justice separate from works, 7“Blessed [are they] whose lawlessnesses were sent away and whose errorshere and throughout, (sins) were covered up [on a particular occasion]; 8blessed [is the] man whose error the lord [absolutely] will not countοὐ μὴ + future indicative is an emphatic denial, so this could also be translated will never count/calculate.” 9[Is] this blessing, therefore, upon [only] the circumcision, or also upon the uncircumcision? For we say, “Belief was calculated for Abraham unto justice.”d 10How therefore was it calculated? To [him] being in the circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision but in uncircumcision; 11and he took the mark of circumcision as a seal(sign); lit. signet of the justice of belief, the belief [while] in uncircumcision,e in order that he may behere and in the next clause, εἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause a father of all the [ones] believing through uncircumcision, in order that justice may be calculated [on a particular occasion] for them [also],some manuscripts omit 12and [in order that he may be] a father of the circumcisedlit. circumcision, for the [ones] not [included] out of circumcision only, but also for them being in line with the footsteps of the belief of our father Abraham, [the belief he had while] in uncircumcision.

13For not through [the] law [did] the promiselit. command, summons (as in court) [come] to Abraham or to his seed,f that he is the heir of [the] cosmos,g but through [the] justice of belief. 14For if the heirs [are heirs] out of [the] law, the belief has been emptied and the promise has been abolished;lit. left unusedh 15for the law works at(achieves by labor) wrath;lit. impulse but on the other hand,some manuscripts: for where there is not a law, neither [is there] an overstepping.i 16On account of this, [justice is] from belief, in order that [it may be]ἴνα + implied subjunctive verb purpose clause according to grace, in order that the promise may beεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause steady(firm / sure / certain) for every seed, not only for the [one] from the law, but also for the [one] from [the] belief of Abraham,indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew, so genitive case is assumed; with its placement, it could hypothetically also modify νόμου, the law, and σπέρματι, the seed who is a father of us all,j 17just as [it] is writtenk that “I have put you as a father of many nations,” beforelit. opposite [the one] in whom [he] believed [on a particular occasion], God, the [one] making the dead alive and calling the [things] not being as being;l 18who believed beyond hope upon hope in order that he may becomeεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause “a father of many nations” according to the word,lit. the [thing] having been said “Thus will be your seed,”m 19and not having been weak [on a particular occasion] in belief, [he] consideredsome manuscripts: did not consider his own flesh having [already] been made dead, [since he was] existing about one hundred years,n and [he considered] the death of the womb [of] Sarah;like Ἀβραάμ, Σάρρας is an indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew; genitive case is assumed by context 20but [he] did not waverlit. was not thoroughly separated [on any particular occasion] to unbelief unto the promise of God, but [he] was empowered with belief, having given[on a particular occasion] glory to God 21and having been fully satisfied[on a particular occasion] that the [one] powerful to promise is also [powerful] to do.(make / enact) 22Wherefore [also]some manuscripts omit “[it] was calculated for him unto justice.”o 23But [it] was not written on his account only, [i.e.,] that [it] was calculated for him, 24but also on our account,p for whom [it] is destined to be calculated, for the [ones] [of us] believing upon the [one] having roused Jesus our Lord out of [the] dead,q 25who was handed over [on a particular occasion] on account of our blunders(missteps)r and was roused(awoke) [on a particular occasion] on account of our justification.s

a But Abraham believed…him unto justice: Genesis 15:6; cf. Galatians 3:6; James 2:23
b verse 4: cf. Romans 11:6
c says: Psalm 32:1-2
d Belief was calculated…Abraham unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
e he took the…[while] in uncircumcision: cf. Genesis 17:10-11
f to his seed: cf. Galatians 3:29
g that he is…of [the] cosmos: cf. Genesis 18:18; 22:17-18
h verse 14: cf. Galatians 3:18
i there is not…there] an overstepping: cf. Romans 3:20; 5:13; 7:8
j for the [one]…of us all: cf. Galatians 3:7
k written: Genesis 17:5
l calling the [things]…being as being: cf. Isaiah 48:13
m Thus will be your seed: cf. Genesis 15:5
n [since he was]…one hundred years: cf. Genesis 17:17
o [it] was calculated…him unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
p But [it] was…on our account: cf. Romans 15:4
q the [one] having…of [the] dead: cf. I Peter 1:21
r who was handed…of our blunders: cf. Isaiah 53:4-5
s was roused [on…of our justification: cf. I Corinthians 15:17

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