Romans 13

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Let every life be placed underassigned to the powershere and throughout, authorities being overlit. rising above [it].some manuscripts: Be placed under every power being over [you].a For [there] is no powerlit. power is not if not from God, but the [powers] being(existing) have been marshaled(arrayed / drawn up [for battle]) by God;b 2inasmuch as the [one] setting [oneself] in battle against(opposition to) the power, the [one] having been appointed [on a particular occasion] by God, [he] has set [himself] against [iti.e., the power/authority in battle], but the [ones] having set [themselves] against [it] will receive a judgment(condemnation) for themselves. 3For the [ones] ruling are not a fear to the good work(deed) but to the bad.c But do [thou] wish not to dread(be frightened by) the power? Do the good [thing], and [thou] will have approval(praise) from it; 4for [it] is a servantHere and throughout, an English cognate term with this word is deacon. of God for thee unto the good [thing]. But if [thou] do the bad [thing], be afraid; for [it] does not carry the daggerThough not technically accurate, it was common to use this Greek word to refer to the gladius, the primary sword of the Roman soldier. in vain;(at random / without a plan) for [it] is a servant of God, a prosecutor(avenger) unto wrath to the [one] practicing the bad [thing].d 5Wherefore [there is] a compulsion to be placed under [it], not only on account of wrath, but also on account of knowledge.(conscience) 6For an account of this [thing you] perform(perfect) tributes,lit. payments for public servants of God are persisting obstinatelyThis is a circumlocution, using a participle instead of the normal form of the verb. This focuses especially on the state of behavior rather than the particular action. unto this same thing. 7Give back debts to all [people], the tribute to the [one to whom] tribute [is due],e the dutylit. outcome, end to the [one to whom] the duty [is due], fear to the [one to whom] fear [is due], honor to the [one to whom] honor [is due].

8Oweὀφείλετε can take a direct object, meaning to owe something, or an infinitive, meaning that you ought to do something. Both are used here, but English loses some of the commandment of the latter (i.e., we ought to love each other). nothing to anyone, except to love each other; for the [one] loving another has fulfilled [the] law.f 9For the [thing], [thou] will notThe verb forms here could almost be imperatives, but the word for negation is οὐ, not μή, which means it must be a future indicative, not an imperative. commit adultery, [thou] will not murder, [thou] will not covet,(desire); lit. set one’s heart uponsome manuscripts end after murder, others add [thou] will not give false witness there; some do bothg and if [there is] any other commandment, in this word [it] is summed up, {in this:} [thou] will love thy nearby [person(neighbor) as] thyself.h 10Love does not work [at] a bad [thing] for the [one] nearby;This is the adverbial form, not an adjective. love, therefore, [is the] fulfilmentlit. complement of [the] law.i

11And knowing this [is] the time, that the hour already [has come] to wake(rouse) yousome manuscripts: us; others omit out of [the] sleeping [ones],Or from sleep; compare with, e.g., Romans 1:4 and elsewhere, “from the dead.”j for now our salvation [is] nearer than when [we] believed [on a particular occasion]. 12The night advanced(made progress / progressed) [on a particular occasion], but the day has approached.k Let [us] therefore put awaysome manuscripts: throw off [on a particular occasion] the works of darkness,l {and} let [us] put onhere and in verse 14, (don) the armor of light. 13Let [us] walk gracefully as in [the] day, not with revelries and strong drinks,m not with beds and licentiousness, not with strife and jealousy; 14but put on the lord Jesus Christ,n and do not make providencelit. foreknowledge, foresight forlit. of the flesh unto [its] desires.(covets); the same root as the command in verse 9

a Let every life…rising above [it]: cf. Titus 3:1
b For [there] is…marshaled by God: cf. Proverbs 8:15; John 19:11
c For the [ones]…to the bad: cf. 1 Peter 2:13-14; 3:13
d a prosecutor unto…the bad [thing]: cf. Romans 12:19
e Give back debts…tribute [is due]: cf. Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25
f for the [one]…fulfilled [the] law: cf. Galatians 5:14; 1 Timothy 1:5
g [thou] will not…one’s heart upon: cf. Exodus 20:13-15, 17; Deuteronomy 5:17-19, 21; Matthew 19:18
h [thou] will love…[person as] thyself: cf. Leviticus 19:18; Matthew 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8
i love, therefore, [is…of [the] law: cf. Matthew 22:40
j knowing this [is]…[the] sleeping [ones]: cf. Ephesians 5:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:6-7
k The night advanced…day has approached: cf. 1 John 2:8
l Let [us] therefore…works of darkness: cf. Ephesians 5:11
m Let [us] walk…and strong drinks: cf. Luke 21:34; Ephesians 5:18
n put on the…lord Jesus Christ: cf. Galatians 3:27

Romans 12

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Therefore [I] exhorthere and in verse 8, (summon); lit. call to you, brothers, through the mercies(pities, compassions) of God, to place(set) your bodies aside [as] a sacrifice, living, holy, acceptable to God, your intellectual service. 2The imperatives in this verse are in the present tense, giving them imperfective aspect. This means that the command is habitual, over time, or continuing long-term.And do not be corrected(remodeled) to this period of existence,(age, lifetime, era) but be transformed by the renewal of the mind,(thought)a in order that you may test(prove, approve) what [is] the will of God, the good and acceptableb and perfect.(complete)c

3For [I] say, through the grace having been given [on a particular occasion] to me, to every [one] being among you not to be proudlit. to over-think about what [it] is necessary to think, but to think in order to think soundly,lit. safe-think for each [one] just as God distributed(divided) [on a particular occasion] a measure of faith.(belief)d 4For exactly as in one body [we] have many limbs, on the other hand all the limbs do not have the same job,(business, action, function)e 5thus [we] many are one body in Christ, but on the other hand, individuallylit. according to the one [we are] limbs of each other.f 6But having different graces(favors, charisms) according to grace having been given [on a particular occasion] to us, either prophecy according to the proportion of faith, 7or service in service, or the [one] teaching in [his] teaching, 8or the [one] exhorting in [his] exhortation, the [one] sharing in [his] simplicity,(liberality); lit. singlenessh the [one] being set over in [his] haste,here and in verse 11, (zeal, earnestness) the [one] showing mercy in [his] cheerfulness.An English word derived from this Greek word is hilarity.g

9Love [is] undramatic.(without dissimulation)i AbhorHere and every imperative marked with a blue asterisk through the end of the chapter, this is a participle with attendant circumstance, indicating an imperative sense. the worthless(knaving, toilsome) [thing], glue* [yourselves] to the good [thing];j 10[be] affectionate in brotherly love unto each other,k lead* each other to honor,(worship)l 11do not shrink* from(be timid toward) haste, boil* with respect to [your] spirit,m be a slave* to the lord,some manuscripts: to time; others omit this clause 12rejoice* with respect to hope, remain* [in] pressure,(affliction) persist obstinately(adhere firmly, remain faithful)* in prayer,n 13have a share*(take part in) in the needs of the saints, pursue* hospitality.o 14Blesshere and in the next clause, (praise) the [ones] pursuing {you},some manuscripts omit “you,” others omit this whole clause bless and do not curse.p 15RejoiceThis imperative and the next one is a command using the infinitve; this construction has a solemn or formal force beyond the norm for imperatives. with the [ones] rejoicing, wail(lament) with [ones] wailing.(lamenting)q 16Think* the same [thing] unto each other,r do not think* lofty(proud) [things] but be led away(be arrested)* with the lowly [ones]. Do not become sensible(wise) beside yourselves.(in your own opinion)s 17No longer return* a bad [thing] against a bad [thing];t foresee*(look for) beautiful [things] face-to-face with all men;here and in the next verse, (people)u 18if possible,lit. powerful [insofar as] the [matter is] out of you, live peaceably* with all men;v 19do not avenge* yourselves,w beloved [ones], but give a place to wrath,x for [it] has been written,y “To me [is] vengeance, I will repay, says [the] lord.” 20But if thy enemylit. hated or hateful [one] hunger, feedIn a literal sense, by putting small pieces of food in his mouth by hand. him; if [he] thirst, give [something] to him to drink; for, doing [this], [thou] will heap coals of fire upon his head.z 21Do not be conquered by the bad [one], but conquer the bad [thing] in the good [one/thing].

a be transformed by…of the mind: cf. Ephesians 4:23
b in order that…good and acceptable: cf. Romans 6:11, 13; 1 Peter 2:5
c to place your…acceptable and perfect: cf. Ephesians 5:10, 17
d for each [one]…measure of faith: cf. 1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 4:7
e verse 4: cf. 1 Corinthians 12:12
f verse 5: cf. 1 Corinthians 12:27; Ephesians 4:5
g 6But having different…in [his] cheerfulness: cf. 1 Corinthians 12:4-11; 1 Peter 4:10-11
h the [one] sharing…simplicity cf. 2 Corinthians 9:7
i Love [is] undramatic: cf. 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Peter 1:22
j Abhor the worthless…the good [thing]: cf. Amos 5:15
k [be] affectionate in…unto each other: cf. 2 Peter 1:7
l lead each other to honor: cf. Philippians 2:3
m boil with respect…to [your] spirit: cf. Acts 18:25; Revelation 3:15
n persist obstinately in prayer: cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:17
o pursue hospitality: cf. Hebrews 13:2
p verse 14: cf. Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28; Acts 7:60; 1 Corinthians 4:12
q wail with [ones] wailing: cf. Psalm 35:13
r Think the same…unto each other: cf. Romans 15:5
s Do not become…sensible beside yourselves: cf. Proverbs 3:7; Isaiah 5:21; Romans 11:20
t No longer return…a bad [thing]: cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:15
u foresee beautiful [things]…with all men: cf. Proverbs 3:4 (LXX)
v verse 18: cf. Mark 9:50; Hebrews 12:14
w do not avenge yourselves: cf. Leviticus 19:18; Matthew 5:39
x but give a…place to wrath: cf. Romans 13:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-7
y written: Deuteronomy 32:35; cf. Hebrews 10:30
z verse 20: cf. Proverbs 25:21-22; Matthew 5:44

Romans 11

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1[I] say therefore, God did not push away his people,some manuscripts: inheritance [did he]? Would that it not come to be; for also I am an Israelite, out of [the seed] of Abraham, of [the] tribe of Benjamin.a 2God did not push away his people,b whom [he] foreknew. Or do [you] not know in Elijah, what the writing says, how [he] meets with God against(concerning) Israel? 3“Lord, [they] killed your prophets, [they] razedThe etymology of this word evokes an image of tearing something to the ground and then digging up its foundation. your altars, and I alone was left remaining and [they] seek my life.”c 4But what does the decree(oracle / negotiation) say to him? [I]or [they] left seven thousand men for myself, whoever did not bend [the] knee to Baal.”d 5Therefore thus also in the now-time(present) a remnant has come about according to a choice of grace;e 6but if by grace,Because no verb is supplied, one must be assumed; we may think ἐκλογέω (choose, from ἐκλογὴν in v5) or καταλιμπάνω (leave behind, from κατέλιπον in v4); in either case, the usage is probably the instrumental dative (the dative of means), specifically as a standard of judgment. no longer out of works, for otherwise grace becomes grace no longer.some manuscripts add: for otherwise the work is no longer a work; others: but if out of works, [it] is no longer grace, for otherwise the work is no longer a workf 7What therefore? What Israel was seeking, [she] did not attain,here and elsewhere, (reach) but the choiceHere and in verses 5, 28, not those chosen, but the act of choosing attained [it];g but the remaining [ones] were petrified,(hardened) 8just as [it] has been written, “God gave to them a spirit of bewilderment, eyes not to see,here and in the next clause, as well as in verse 10, are articular infinitives of negative purpose ears not to hear, until the today-day.”h 9And David says, “Let their table become [on a particular occasion] a trap and a hunt and a snare(scandal) and a repayment to them, 10let their eyes be made dark not to seei and their back [be made] bent [down] through everything.”j

11[I] say therefore, [they] did not stumble in order to fall,ἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause [did they]? Would that it not come to be; but the salvation for their blunder [was given] to the peopleshere and throughout, (nations)k in order to provoke them to jealousy.articular infinitive of purpose with εἰςl 12But if their blunder [is the] wealth of [the] cosmos and their loss [is the] wealth of [the] peoples, how much more their fulfilment [is wealth].

13But [I] say to you, to the peoples: therefore, for as much as I am an apostle of peoples, [I] magnify my service, 14if in some way [I] shall provoke my flesh to jealousy, [I] will also save some oflit. out of them. 15For if their rejection [is the] reconciliation of the cosmos, what [is their] acquisition if not life out of [the] dead [ones]? 16And if the firstling [is] holy, also the [whole] mixture [is];m and if the root [is] holy, also the branches [are].

17But if some of the branches were completely broken off [on a particular occasion], but thou, being a wild olive, were graftedhere and throughout, lit. pricked / stuck in among them and, partaking of the root of the fattinesssome manuscripts: of the root; others: of the fattiness; others: of the root and of the fattiness [thou] came to beThis verb could go with any of the genitives (of-phrases) in this verse, just as “partaking” can; though I have rendered it the most sensible way in English, it can mean that by partaking of all these things, you become of them all. of the olive tree,n 18do not boast over the branches; but if [thou] boast, thou do not lift up the root, but the root [lifts] thee [up].o 19Therefore [thou] will say, “Branches were completely broken off in order that I may be grafted in.” 20Wonderful; [they] were completely broken off by [their] disbelief,here and throughout, (lack of faith) but thou have stood by [thy] belief.(faith) Do not be high-minded,lit. think high [things]p but fear;(be afraid) 21for if God did not spare the [ones who were] branches according to their nature,here and throughout, lit. origin neither will [he] spare thee, {not in any way}.some manuscripts omit these words; their presence is still disputed 22Behold, therefore, [the] goodnesshere and throughout, (kindness) and severity of God; on the one hand, severity upon the [ones] having fallen [on a particular occasion], but on the other, [the] goodness of God upon thee, if [thou] remain in the goodness;r otherwise thou also will be cut out.q 23But also those [men], if [they] do not remain in disbelief, [they] will be grafted in; for God is ablelit. powerful to graft them in again. 24For if thou were cut out of the wild olive, [the one] according to [thy] nature, and [thou] were grafted against [thy] nature into the garden olive, by how much more will these, the [ones] according to [their] nature, be grafted in the same olive tree.some manuscripts end this verse as a question

25For [I] do not wish you to miss,(be ignorant of / not perceive) brothers, this mystery, in order that [you] may not be wise {among}some manuscripts use a different word to mean the same thing; others: with respect to yourselves,s because hardness from heritage comes about for Israel to the uttermost where the fulfilment of the peoples came int 26and thus all Israel will be saved,u just as [it] has been written, “The [one] rescuing will have come out of Zion, [he] will turn back impieties from Jacob. 27And this [is] the covenant from me for them, v that [I] take away their errors.”w 28On the one hand, according to the gospel [they are] hated throughhere and in the next clause, (because of) you, but on the other hand, according to the choice [they are] beloved through the fathers; 29for the graces and the calling of God [are] not to be repented of.(repentant) 30For just as you were disobedient to God then, but now [you] have been shown mercy for the disobedience of these [men], 31thus also these [men] now were disobedient for your mercy, in order that [they] themselves also may {now}some manuscripts: afterward; others omit; the presence of this word is disputed be shown mercy. 32For God enclosed all [men] into disobedience in order that [he] might show mercy to all [men].x

33O [the] depth of wealth of both wisdom and knowledge of God; how unexaminable [are] his judgments and inscrutable [are] his ways.y 34“For who knew [the] mind of [the] lord? Or who became his counselor?z 35Or who has prepaid him and will be repaid by him?”aa 36Because out of him and through him and unto him [are] all [things];ab to him [be] the glory unto the ages, amen.

a I am an…tribe of Benjamin: cf. Philippians 3:5
b God did not…away his people: cf. I Samuel 12:22; Psalm 94:14
c verse 3: 1 Kings 19:10, 14
d [I] left seven…knee to Baal: 1 Kings 19:18
e verse 5: cf. Romans 9:27
f verse 6: cf. Galatians 3:18
g What Israel was…choice attained [it]: cf. Romans 9:31
h God gave to…until the today-day: Deuteronomy 29:4; Isaiah 29:10
i Let their table…not to see: cf. Psalm 69:22-23
j their back [be…[down] through everything: cf. Psalm 35:8
k the salvation for…to the peoples: cf. Acts 13:46
l in order to…them to jealousy: cf. Deuteronomy 32:21; Romans 10:19
m And if the…[whole] mixture [is]: cf. Numbers 15:17-21; Nehemiah 10:37; Ezekiel 44:30
n verse 17: cf. Ephesians 2:11-19
o thou do not…[lifts] thee [up]: cf. John 4:22
p Do not be high-minded: cf. Romans 12:16
q verse 22: cf. John 15:2, 4
r if [thou] remain…in the goodness: cf. Hebrews 3:14
s in order that…wise {among} yourselves: cf. Romans 12:16
t the fulfilment of…peoples came in: cf. Luke 21:24; John 10:16
u all Israel will be saved: cf. Matthew 23:39
v The one rescuing…me for them: Isaiah 59:20-21; cf. Psalm 14:7
w that [I] take…away their errors: cf. Isaiah 27:9; Jeremiah 31:33-34
x verse 32: cf. Galatians 3:22; I Timothy 2:4
y inscrutable [are] his ways: cf. Isaiah 45:15; 55:8
z verse 34: cf. Isaiah 40:13 (LXX); Job 15:8; Jeremiah 23:18; I Corinthians 2:16
aa verse 35: cf. Job 41:3
ab out of him…[are] all [things]: cf. I Corinthians 8:6

Romans 10

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Brothers, the good will of my heart and the petition of God over them [is]some manuscripts: over them is; others: over Israel is until salvation. 2For [I] witness to them that [they] have jealousy(zeal) of God,a but not according to(in accordance with) knowledge; 3for, not perceiving the justice of God and seeking to stand up their own {justice}, [they] were not obedient tolit. placed under the justice of God;b 4for the end of the law [is] Christ unto justice for everyone believing.c

5For Moses writes on justice, the [justice] fromhere and in verse 6, lit. out of the law, that the man having done them [the things of the law] will live in them.d 6But the justice from faith says thus, Do not sayThis is a prohibitive subjunctive; it’s typical for negative commands, rather than the imperative; literally, this is more like, “May you not say!” but still carries the weight of a command. in thy heart, ‘Who will go up into the sky?'” that is, to bring Christ down, 7or, “‘Who will go down into the abyss?'” that is, to bring Christ up out of [the] dead. 8But what does [it] say? “The sayinghere and throughout, (word) is near to thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart,”e that is, the saying of faith which [we] proclaim. 9Because if [thou] agreehere and in verse 10, lit. are of the same mind or thinking in thy mouth that Jesus [is] lord and [thou] believe that God raised him out of [the] dead, [thou] will be saved; 10for [it] is believed by heart unto justice and [it] is agreed by mouth unto salvation. 11For the writing says, everyone “believing upon him will not be dishonored.”f 12For there is not a separation both of Jew and of Greek,g for he himself [is] lord of all, being wealthy unto all the [ones] calling upon him; 13for “everyone who calls upon the name of the lord will be saved.”h

14How therefore would [they] call upon [him] in whom [they] did not believe? And how would [they] believe [in him] of whom [they] did not hear? And how would [they] hear apart from [one] proclaiming [it]? 15And how would [they] proclaim [it] if [they] were not sent?Of the possible words St. Paul could have used, this one is directly derivative of the root of our word apostle. Thus, only those given authority from God (through the Church) should go out and preach, not just anyone with a Bible. (Compare the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:27-39.) Just as [it] is written, “How timely [are] the feetsome manuscripts add of the [ones] bringing the good news of peace of the [ones] bringing good news.”lit. bringing good [things] as good news or bringing the good news of good [things]i 16But not all [men] listened to the gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who believed our tidings?”j 17Then faith [comes] out of tidings,k and tidings through the saying of Christ.some manuscripts: of God; others omit 18But [I] say, [they] did not hear, did they? On the contrary,See the note on this same phrase in Romans 9:20. “Their voice went out into all the earth and their sayings into the ends of the inhabited world.”l 19But [I] say, Israel did not know, did they? First Moses says, “I will provoke you to jealousy upon [one who is] not a nation, and upon a witless(unintelligible) nation [I] will provoke you to anger.”m 20And Isaiah makes a bold venture and says, “[They] were found {among} the [ones] not seeking me; [I] became manifest to the [ones] not consulting me.”n 21But to Israel [I] say, “For the whole day [I] spread out my hands to a people refusing and contradicting [me].”o

a [they] have jealousy of God: cf. Acts 22:3
b verse 3: cf. Romans 9:31-32
c verse 4: cf. Matthew 5:17; John 3:18; Hebrews 8:13
d the man having…live in them: Leviticus 18:5; cf. Galatians 3:12
e Do not say…in thy heart: Deuteronomy 9:4; 30:12-14
f believing upon him…not be dishonored: Isaiah 28:16; cf. Romans 9:33
g For there is…and of Greek: cf. Acts 10:34; 15:9
h everyone who calls…will be saved: Joel 2:32
i How timely [are]…bringing good news: Isaiah 52:7; cf. Nahum 1:15; Ephesians 6:15
j Lord, who believed our tidings: Isaiah 53:1; cf. John 12:38
k faith [comes] out of tidings: cf. John 17:20
l Their voice went…the inhabited world: Psalm 19:4
m I will provoke…you to anger: Deuteronomy 32:21
n [They] were found…not consulting me: Isaiah 65:1
o For the whole…and contradicting [me]: Isaiah 65:2 (Septuagint)

Romans 9

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1[I] speak truth in Christ, [I] do not lie,(am not lying) with my consciousness witnessinggenitive absolute with me in [the] holy spirit, 2that there is for me a great painlit. a pain of the body, fig. a pain of the mind and an incessant griefsynonymous with “pain” earlier in the sentence, but tends to be used figuratively more often, hence it is rendered grief here for my heart. 3For [I] was praying to be a curse, I myself [was praying to be] away from Christ on behalf oflit. over my brothers, the [ones] akin according to flesh,a 4whoever are Israelites, of whom [there is] the adoption as sonsb and the glory and the covenantssome manuscripts: the covenant and the legislationor adoption of laws; possible play on words with υἱοθεσία (adoption as sons) above and the service and the announcements,here and in verses 8-9, (promises); compare this word, ἐπαγγελία, with ἄγγελος, hence we get “angel” 5of whom [there are] the fathers and out of whom [came] Christ according to the flesh,c the [one] being upon alld God blessed unto the ages,esome manuscripts: the [one] being over all. Blessed [be] God unto the ages; others: the [one] being God over all. Blessed [be he] unto the ages amen.

6But [it is] not, as it were, that the word has fallen from God.(the word of God has fallen)f For not all the [ones] [coming] out of Israel, these [are not] Israel;g 7nor that all children of Abraham are a seed [of Abraham], but, “In Isaac a seed will be called for you.”h 8That is, not the children of flesh, [not] these [are] children of God, but the children of the announcement are counted(reckoned) unto a seed.i 9For the word of announcement [is] this, “At this time [I] will come and a son will be with Sarah.”j 10But not only [this], but also Rebekah bearing out of one marriage-bed of our father Isaac,k 11for with [the child/ren]No mention has yet been made of there being twins; as someone familiar with the Old Testament, we know that Rebekah had twins, and Paul will get to that momentarily, but the point is that, at this stage of the story, Rebekah did not know–and so he does not mention it, even though we already know it. This is first-century irony. not yet being born nor doing anything good or petty, in order that the public notice(purpose) of God according to choice might remain, 12not out of works but out of the [one] calling, [it] was said to her that, “The greater will be enslaved to the smaller,”l 13just as [it] has been written, “Jacob [I] loved,from ἀγάπη but Esau [I] hated.”m

14What therefore shall [we] say? [There is] not injustice with God, [is there]? Would that it not come to be.n 15For [he] says to Moses, “[I] will show mercy to whomever [I] show mercy and [I] will have pity on whomever [I] have pity.”o 16Then, therefore, [it is] not of the [one] wishing nor of the [one] running,These participles (“wishing” and “running”) are frequently translated as modifying some noun “man” or “person,” but that word does not appear. The participles modify “God,” and so may apply to him (i.e.,[it is] not of [God] wishing or of [God] running, but of God showing mercy), but they may also be acting substantively (as I have rendered it). The text itself does not suggest one or the other is more correct. but of God showing mercy. 17For the writingi.e., Scripture says to Pharaoh, “Unto this [thing] itself [I] awakened thee(raised thee / stood thee up) [on a particular occasion] in order thatboth purpose clauses are formed from ὅπως + subjunctive [I] might exhibit in thee my power and in order that my name might be proclaimed [on a particular occasion] in all the earth.”p 18Then, therefore, on whom [he] wishes, [he] has mercy, but on the other hand, whom [he] wishes, [he] hardens.q

19[Thou] ask me therefore, “WhyThis is probably an adverbial question (as rendered), but it could also be what, the object of μέμφεται (blame). {therefore} does [he] still blame?(find fault) For who stands against his purpose?” 20O man, on the contrary,Lit. on the one hand, therefore, at least; idiomatically, it suggests something like, That wrong thing I just said? The reality is this: who are thou, the [one] responding again to God? [Thou], as the formed [thing], do not say to the forming [one], “Why did [thou] make me thus,” [do thou]?r 21Or does the potter not have authority of the clays to make out of his mixture a vessel which [is] unto honor, on the one hand, but on the other, [does he not have authority to make a vessel] which [is] unto dishonor?t 22But if God, wishing to exhibit [his] wrath and to make known his power, bore, in much long-suffering, vessels of wrath,u having been equippedi.e., the vessels unto destruction, 23[did he not do so] alsosome manuscripts omit in order that [he] may make known the wealth of his glory upon vessels of pity, which [vessels] [he] prepared beforehand unto glory?v 24Which [vessels] also [he] called, us, not only out of Jews but also out of nations,or (peoples), but a different word from that translated “people” in vv25-26 25just as [it] also says in Hosea, “[I] will call the not-my-people my people and the not-beloved beloved;w 26and [it] will be [that], in the place where [it] was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ there [they] will be called sons of [the] living God.”x 27And Isaiah cries out over Israel, Ifa future more vivid conditional clause the number of the sons of Israel be just as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved; 28for [the] lord, completing and cutting short,some manuscripts: cutting short in (justice/righteousness); others: cutting short in justice because [the] word [was] cut altogether; one other: cutting short in justice because [the] word [was] shattered will make [his] word upon the earth.”y 29And just as Isaiah has said beforehand, “If [the] lord Sabaothfrom a Hebrew word, meaning “hosts” or “armies”; here, though undeclined, probably genitive, so of hosts had not left behind a seed for us, [we] would have become just as Sodom, and [we] would have been made just like Gomorrah.”z

30What therefore shall [we] say? That nations, the [ones] not pursuingThe verbs in this verse and verse 31 create images of pursuit and attainment; on the one hand, nations doing no pursuit at all capture justice through faith, but Israel, actively pursuing the law of justice, cannot reach it by that way. justice, caught justice, but the justice out of faith,aa 31but Israel, pursuing [the] law of justice, did not come first unto [the] law.ab 32On account of what? Because [Israel pursued it] not out of faith, but ashere, this carries the sense that pursuing from faith can succeed, but pursuing from works cannot: as if it could be caught out of works out of works;some manuscripts: works of [the] law [they] stumbled on the stone of stumbling,ac 33just as [it] has been written, “Behold, [I] place in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of scandal, and the [one] believingsome manuscripts: everyone believing upon it will not be dishonored.”ad

a verse 3: cf. Exodus 32:32
b Israelites, of whom…adoption as sons: cf. Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; 14:1-2
c out of whom…to the flesh: cf. Matthew 1:1-16; Luke 3:23-38
d the [one] being upon all: cf. John 1:1
e God blessed unto the ages: cf. Psalm 41:13; Romans 1:25
f But [it is]…fallen from God: cf. Numbers 23:19
g For not all…[are not] Israel: cf. Romans 2:28
h In Isaac a…called for you: Genesis 21:12
i verse 8: cf. Galatians 4:23
j At this time…be with Sarah: Genesis 18:10, 14
k verse 10: cf. Genesis 25:21
l The greater will…to the smaller: Genesis 25:23
m Jacob [I] loved…Esau [I] hated: Malachi 1:2-3
n [There is] not…come to be: cf. Deuteronomy 32:4
o [I] will show…[I] have pity: Exodus 33:19
p Unto this [thing]…all the earth: Exodus 9:16
q whom [he] wishes, [he] hardens: cf. Exodus 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 14:4, 17
r [Thou], as the…thus,” [do thou]: cf. Isaiah 29:16; 45:9; Wisdom 12:12
s does the potter…of the clay: cf. Jeremiah 18:6
t to make out…[is] unto dishonor: cf. Wisdom 15:7
u bore, in much…vessels of wrath: cf. Jeremiah 50:25
v verse 23: cf. Ephesians 1:3-12
w [I] will call…the not-beloved beloved: Hosea 2:23
x verse 26: Hosea 1:10
y If the number…upon the earth: Isaiah 10:22-23; cf. Hosea 1:10
z If [the] lord…just like Gomorrah: Isaiah 1:9
aa verse 30: cf. Romans 10:20
ab verse 31: cf. Wisdom 2:11; Romans 10:2-3
ac [they] stumbled on…stone of stumbling: cf. Isaiah 8:14
ad Behold, [I] place…not be dishonored: Isaiah 28:16; cf. Romans 10:11; I Peter 2:6, 8