Romans 8

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Now, then, nothing [is] a condemnation to the [ones] in Christ Jesus.some manuscripts: to the [ones] in Christ Jesus not walking according to flesh.; others: to the [ones] in Christ Jesus not walking according to flesh, but according to spirit. (cf. verse 4 below) 2For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesusa freed theesome manuscripts: me; others: us [on a particular occasion] from the law of error and of death.or, potentially, from the law of error and from death.b 3For [that was] the inability of the law, in which [the law] was feeble through the flesh,c [but] God, having sent [on a particular occasion] his own son in [the] likeness of a flesh of error, and forlit. around, but, in a sense, to gain; this usage comes from combat in which a prize was placed in the middle of a ring and contestants fought around it error,d condemned the error in the flesh, 4in order thatἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause the judgment of the law may be filled in us, the [ones] not walking according to flesh, but according to spirit.e 5For the [ones] being according to flesh are mindful of the [things] of the flesh, but on the other hand, the [ones] [being] according to spirit [are mindful] of the [things] of the spirit. 6For the mind of the flesh [is] death,f but the mind of the spirit [is] life and peace; 7because the mind of the flesh [is] enmity unto God,g for [it] is not subjected to([it] does not place [itself] under) the law of God, for neither does [it] have the power;lit. nor is [it] able [to do something]h 8but the [ones] being in flesh are not able to make amends to God. 9But you, on the other hand, are not in flesh, but in spirit, if indeed a spirit of God dwells in you.i But, on the other hand, if someone does not have a spirit of Christ, this [man] is not of him.i.e., Christj 10But if Christ [is] in you, on the one hand the body [is] dead on account of error, but on the other, the spirit [is] alive on account of justice.k 11But if the spirit of the [one] having awakened Jesus out of [the] dead dwells in you, the [one] having awakened Christ out of [the] dead will make alive also your mortal bodies through the indwelling of his spiritsome manuscripts: on account of his indwelling spirit in you.

12Then therefore, brothers, [we] are debtors, not to the flesh in order to live according to flesh,genitive articular infinitive of purposel 13for if [you] live according to flesh, [you] are destined to die, but if [you] put to death for [the] spirit the acts of the body, [you] will live.m 14For as many as are brought to a spirit of God, these are sons of God. 15For [you] did not seize a spirit of slavery again unto fear,n but [you] seized a spirit of adoption in which [we] cry out, “Abba!” [that is,] father.o 16The spirit itself testifies with our spirit that [we] are children of God.p 17But if [we are] children, [we are] also heirs; on the one hand heirs of God,q but on the other, co-heirs of Christ, if indeed [we] co-suffer in order thatἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause [we] may co-glorify.

18For [I] calculate(reckon) that the misfortunes of the now-time [are] not worthy(fit / meet) towardslit. face-to-face with [the fact] that the destined glory is revealed(uncovered) unto us.idiomatically, this is something like, in comparison with the revelation of destined glory.r 19For the longingIn this construction, this word (ἀποκαραδοκία) is fairly rare. It is derived from a verb that appears more often (ἀποκαραδοκέω). Commentators (such as Strong’s Concordance) break it down to ἀπό + κάρα + δοκέω, literally, “away from + head + to think.” This leads to a sense like, “to think away from the head,” or, “to be forward-thinking,” or even, “with head outstretched.”

This seems unlikely to me. καραδοκέω was a word dating back at least to Herodotus (c. 5th century BC) and meant “to wait for the head,” i.e., the conclusion of something. ἀποκαραδοκέω was used by Polybius (2nd century BC) and Josephus (1st century AD). The word ἀπό idiomatically means “fully” or “completely” in composite words; thus, the word emphasizes looking to the resolution of a thing, not really an immediate striving (as “with head outstretched” suggests).
of creation awaits anxiouslyhere and throughout, (expects eagerly) the revelation of the sons of God.s 20For creation was subjected to vanity, not [being] willing, but on account of the [one] having been subjected, upon hopet 21that also some manuscripts: subjected onto hope, because; others: subjected upon hope, and creation itself will be set free from the slavery of ruinu unto the freedom of the glory of the children of God.v 22For we know that all creation groans together and travails together even up to now; 23and not only [this], but also [we] ourselves, having the firstlingBecause of this word’s association with “first sacrifices,” it came to mean birth certificate; that may be the sense here. of the spirit, also we ourselves sigh in ourselves, awaiting anxiously adoption,some manuscripts omit this word the ransoming of our body.w 24For [we] were saved [on a particular occasion] (in / for / unto)Though all of the options listed are possible, this cannot mean that we were saved by hope. hope; but hope, being seen, is not hope;x for who hopes for what [he] sees?some manuscripts: what somebody sees, what does he hope for?; others: what somebody sees, does [he] also hope for?; others: what somebody sees, does [he] also await? 25But if [we] hope for what [we] do not see, through endurance [we] await [it] anxiously.

26And in just the same way, the spirit also helpslit. seizes against with, i.e., picks up with (though opposite), as perhaps with a large piece of furniture us with [our] weakness;as frequently, ἡμῶν is probably doing double-duty (being the object of “helps” and modifying “weakness”) for [we] do not know whatThis construction really emphasizes the ambiguity here; this is a very generic “what”; I imagine St. Paul’s eyes widening during this, accompanied by a hefty shrug. [we] should pray for,a deliberative independent subjunctive as far as [what] is needed, but the spirit itself intercedessome manuscripts: intercedes on behalf of us; others: meets on behalf of us (cf. v27 and v34 below) with unspeakable groans; 27but the [one] searching(seeking / searching for) the heartsy knows what the mind of the spirit [is], that(because) [the spirit] meets with GodLit. happens upon in accordance with God; idiomatically, may mean “pleads” or “meets” or even, in some cases, “intercedes” (the word here is the root of the one used in v26 above). But ἐντυγχάνω + κατά + accusative of something is a rare construction. Cf. Plutarch, Lycurgus 1.2: ἔνιοι δὲ καὶ κατ’ ὄψιν ἐντυχεῖν Ὁμήρῳ, “but some also [say] that [he] met with Homer in accordance with a face,” i.e., “face-to-face.” Contrast the lack of dative object in our passage, suggesting that κατὰ θεόν denotes the object of ἐντυγχάνει somehow. Thus, the sense is probably “meets” or “pleads” in the manner of God, but I like to think (however far-fetched) that the Trinity is textually implied (i.e., “God-to-God”). on behalf ofhere and throughout, lit. over holy [ones]. 28But [we] know that for the [ones] lovingfrom ἀγάπη God, all [things] work togethersome manuscripts: God works all [things] together; the singular verb here is not an indication of which manuscripts are correct, since, as usual, neuter plural subjects take singular verbs unto good,z for the [ones] being called(invited / chosen / welcome); compare ἐκκλησία (assembly / church) from the same root according to a purpose.lit. (public placement / public notice) 29Because [the ones] whom [he] knew beforehand, [he] also predetermined as conformed to the image of his son, in order that he may beεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause [the] first-born among many brothers;aa 30and [the ones] whom [he] predetermined,for this and all the verbs in this verse, [on a particular occasion] these also [he] called; and [the ones] whom [he] called, these also [he] justified; and [the ones] whom [he] justified, these also [he] glorified.

31What therefore shall [we] say toward these [things]? If God [is] forlit. over us,ab who [is] againstlit. down upon us? 32For [the one] who at least did not spare his own son, but handed him over on behalf of us all, how will [he] not also, together with him,i.e., the son grace us with all [things]?technically, all [things] is the direct object and us is the indirect object, but this construction better represents the verb in Englishac 33Who will bring charges against [the] chosenlit. elect [ones] of God? The [one] judging [is] God;some manuscripts: [Is] the [one] judging [us] God? 34some manuscripts pose the second half of this verse as a question, i.e., [Is it] Christ Jesus…?who [is] the [one] condemning [us]? Christ [Jesus],some manuscripts: Christ; others: but at the same time, Christ [Jesus] the [one] having died, but more, having been roused, who also is in [the] right hand of God,ad who also meets [with God] on behalf of 35Who will separate us from the love of Christ?some manuscripts: of God; others: of God, the [love] in Christ Jesus (cf. v39 below) Pressure or a strait or pursuit or famine or nakedness or danger or a sword? 36Just as [it] is written,af that: “On account of thee [we] are being put to death for the whole day,accusative of duration of time [we] were counted(reckoned) just as cattle for a slaughter.” 37But in all these [things] we over-conquer through the [one] having lovedfrom ἀγάπη us [on a particular occasion].ag 38For [I] have been persuaded that neither death nor life nor angels nor rulers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined nor powerssome manuscripts: nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined; others: nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor heights; others: nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined; others: nor authorities nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined nor powers; others: nor authorities nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined 39nor heights nor depth nor any other creation has power to separate us from the love of God, the [love] in Christ Jesus our lord.

a For the law…in Christ Jesus: cf. Romans 3:27
b verse 2: cf. Romans 7:23-24
c For [that was]…through the flesh: cf. Acts 13:38; 15:10
d God, having sent…and for error: cf. John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; 4:15
e us, the [ones]…according to spirit: cf. Galatians 5:16, 25
f For the mind…flesh [is] death: cf. Romans 6:21; 7:5; 8:13
g because the mind…enmity unto God: cf. James 4:4
h for [it] is…have the power: cf. Matthew 12:34; John 8:43; 12:39
i a spirit of…dwells in you: cf. I Corinthians 3:16
j But, on the…not of him: cf. I Corinthians 12:3
k verse 10: cf. Galatians 2:20; I Peter 4:6
l verse 12: cf. Romans 6:7, 18
m verse 13: cf. Galatians 6:8
n For [you] did…again unto fear: cf. II Timothy 1:7
o but [you] seized…[that is,] father: cf. Mark 14:36; Galatians 4:5-6
p verse 16: cf. II Corinthians 1:22
q But if [we…heirs of God: cf. Galatians 4:7; Revelation 21:7
r verse 18: cf. II Corinthians 4:17
s the revelation of…sons of God: cf. Colossians 3:4
t verse 20: cf. Genesis 3:17-19; 5:29; Ecclesiastes 1:2
u creation itself will…slavery of ruin: cf. II Peter 3:13
v the glory of…children of God: cf. I John 3:2
w verse 23: cf. II Corinthians 5:2-4; Galatians 5:5
x For [we] were…is not hope: cf. II Corinthians 5:7
y but the [one]…searching the hearts: cf. Psalm 139:1; I Corinthians 4:5
z for the [ones]…together unto good: cf. Ephesians 1:11; 3:11
aa first-born among many brothers: cf. Colossians 1:18; Hebrews 1:6
ab If God [is] for us: cf. Psalm 118:6
ac how will [he]…with all [things]: cf. John 3:16
ad who also is…hand of God: cf. Psalm 110:1
ae who also meets…behalf of us: cf. I John 2:1
af written: Psalm 44:22; cf. II Corinthians 4:11
ag verse 37: cf. John 16:33

Romans 7

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Or do [you] not perceive, brothers—for [I] speak [to those who] know law—that the law is lord of a person for as long a time as [he] lives? 2For the marriedlit. under-a-man woman has been bound by law to the living man; but if, on the other hand, the man dies, [she] has been left free here and in verse 6, lit. left idlefrom the law of the man. 3Then, therefore, with the man living, if [she] comes to be with a different man, [she] operates asidiomatically, is called adulterous; but if, on the other hand, the man dies, [she] is free from the law, in order that [she] may not bearticular infinitive in the genitive showing purpose adulterous, having come to be with a different man. 4And so, my brothers, you also were put to death ὥστε + indicative verb is a result clauseto the law through the body of Christ,a in order that you may come to be with another,lit. a different [one]εἰς + articular infinitive usually expresses purpose, but may also express result; in this case, the alternative translation would be: so that you come to be with another [that is,] with the [one] having been awakened out of [the] dead, in order that [we] may bear fruit for God. 5For when [we] were in the flesh, the misfortunes of the errors,here and throughout, (sins) the [misfortunes] through the law, were being energizedAs is typical, here we have a neuter plural subject (παθήματα, misfortunes) taking a singular verb (ἐνηργεῖτο). in our limbs, in order to bear fruit for death;b 6but now, on the other hand, [we] were left free from the law,c [we] dying in that with which [we] were being held back, so that we are slaves ὥστε + accusative-infinitive clause, indicating resultin a newness of spirit and not [in] an antiquity of writing.(letter)d

7What, therefore, shall [we] say? The law [is] an error? May [it] not come to be; but [I] would not know the error if not through law;In this clause and immediately following, these conditionals are simple past conditionals. Because of the negative construction, the difference in English between this and a counterfactual conditional is minimal. for [I] would also not know the desire (coveting)if the law did not say, “Thou will not desire.”(covet)e 8But the error, having seized a starting point through the commandment, works athere and throughout, (achieves by labor) every desire in me; for apart from [the] law, error [is] dead.f 9But I was living apart from [the] law then, but with the commandment having come, the error returned to life, 10but I died, and it was found [that] for me, the commandment, the [one] unto life,g this [one] [was] unto death; 11for the error, having seized a starting point through the commandment, deceived meh and, through it,i.e., the commandment [the error] killed [me]. 12And so the law [on the one hand] [is] holy and the commandment [is] holy and just and good.i

13Therefore did the good [thing] for me become death [for me]? May [it] not come to be; but [it was] the error, in order that [it] may appear as error, through the good [thing] working at death for me, in order that the error may become surpassingly lit. according to an overthrowingerroneous through the commandment.j 14For we knowSome manuscripts: on the one hand, [I] know; this differs from the text as given by a space between letters that the law is spiritual, but on the other hand, I am fleshy, having been sold under the error.This construction could also mean that the error is the agent of the sale, i.e., that Paul was sold by the errork 15For what [I] work at, [I] do not know; for what [I] want, this [I] do not achieve, but what [I] hate, this [I] do. 16But if [I] do not do this [thing] which [I] want, [I] consent to the law that [it is] beautiful. 17But now, I no longer work at it, but the error dwelling in me [works at it]. 18For [I] know that a good [thing] does not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh;l for the wishing is close at handhere and in verse 21, (available) for me, but on the other hand, working at the beautiful [thing] [is] not [close at hand];Some manuscripts: [I] do not know [how to work at the beautiful thing]; others: [I] do not find [working at the beautiful thing] 19for [I] do not do a good [thing] which [I] want, but [I] achieve this bad [thing] which [I] do not want. 20But if [I] do this [thing] which ISome manuscripts omit do not want, I no longer work at it, but the error dwelling in me. 21[I] find, then, the law, for me, wanting to do the beautiful [thing], that for me the bad [thing] is close at hand; 22for [I] rejoice together with the law of God Some manuscripts: of the mind; others omitaccording to the interior person, 23but [I] see a different law in my limbs, warring against the law of my mindm and taking me prisoner in the law of the error, the [law] being in my limbs. 24I [am] a miserable person; who will save(set free); lit. protect / cover me out the body of this death?or this body of death; word placement suggests the translation as given, but this alternative sounds more natural in English and may still get the point across 25But grace [be] to God through Jesus Christ our lord.Some manuscripts: [there is] the grace of God through Jesus Christ our lord; others: [there is] the grace of [the] lord through Jesus Christ our lord; others: grace to our lord Jesus Christ; others: [I] give thanks to God through Jesus Christ our lord.n Then, therefore, I myself am a slave to [the] law of God in my mind on the one hand, but on the other hand [I am a slave] to [the] law of error in my flesh.

a And so, my…body of Christ: cf. Colossians 2:14
b in order to…fruit for death: cf. Romans 5:21; 8:6, 13
c but now, on…from the law: cf. Romans 8:2
d so that we…antiquity of writing: cf. Romans 6:4
e Thou will not desire: cf. Exodus 20:17; Deuteronomy 5:21; 4 Maccabees 2:5; Romans 13:9
f for apart from…error [is] dead: cf. Romans 5:13
g the commandment, the…[one] unto life: cf. Leviticus 18:5
h for the error…commandment, deceived me: cf. Genesis 3:13; Hebrews 3:13
i verse 12: cf. I Timothy 1:8
j [it was] the…through the commandment: cf. Romans 5:20
k I am fleshy…under the error: cf. Psalm 51:5; John 3:6
l For [I] know…in my flesh: cf. Genesis 6:5; 8:21
m a different law…of my mind: cf. Galatians 5:7; James 4:1; I Peter 2:11
n But grace [be]…Christ our lord: cf. I Corinthians 15:57

Romans 6

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1What therefore shall [we] say? Should [we] tarry with(persist in)dubitative independent subjunctive error,here and throughout, (sin) in order that grace may be more than enough?(superfluous)a 2Would that it not come to and throughout, (become [so]) Whichever [of us] died [on a particular occasion] to error, how shall [we] still live in it?b 3Or do [you] not perceive(are [you] ignorant) that, as many as were baptizedc into Christ Jesus, [they] were baptized into his death? 4Thereforesome manuscripts: For; others omit [we] were buried together with him through the baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was roused out of [the] dead through the glory of the father, thus also we may walk about in newness of life.d 5For if [we] have become(come into being as) innate with(natural to) the likeness of his death, on the other hand [we] shall also be [innate with the likeness] of the resurrection;e 6knowing this, that our old man was co-crucified,f in order that the body of error might be left idle, in order that we may no longer be enslavedgenitive of purpose with articular infinitive to error; 7for the [one] dying has been justified(vindicated) from the error.g 8But, on the other hand,some manuscripts: For if [we] died with Christ, [we] believe that [we] shall also live with him, knowing that Christ, having been roused out of [the] dead no longer dies, his death no longer is lord [of him].Some translations simply render this, “Death is no longer master over him,” because κυριεύω (“rules”, “is lord”) takes a genitive for its direct object; but word order obviously has αὐτοῦ (“his”) modifying θάνατος (“death”). As usual, the answer is probably that the word is doing double-duty and modifies both. 10For [he] who died, died to error once for all;h but on the other hand, [he] who lives, lives for God.i 11Thus also you, calculate yourselves [to be]The presence or position of this word is disputed. dead to error on the one hand, but on the other hand, living for God in Christ Jesus.some manuscripts: in Christ Jesus our Lord; others omitj

12Let error not reign, therefore, in your mortal body, [leading] unto hearkening to(obeying) its yearnings,some manuscripts: it in its yearningsi.e., do not let sin command you 13and do not stand up your limbs as tools of injustice for error, but stand yourselves up for Godk as if [the] living out of [the] deadl and [stand up] your limbs as tools of justice for God. 14For your error will not reign;m for [you] are not under [the] law, but under grace.

15What therefore? Should [we] err because [we] are not under [the] law but under grace? Would that it not come to be.n 16Do you not know that of the [one] for whom [you] stand yourselves up as slaves [leading] unto obedience,shares root with ὑπακούω, “to hearken” [you] are slaves of the [one] to whom [you] hearken, either truly of error [leading] unto death or of obedience [leading] unto justice?o 17But thankslit. grace [be] to God that [you] were slaves of error, but [you] hearkened to(obeyed) a modellit. a beating / cast of instruction which [you] were taught,lit. handed over 18but having been set free [on a particular occasion] from the error,p [you] were enslaved to justice. 19[I] say a human [thing] on account of the weakness of your flesh. For just as [you] stood up your limbs as slaves to uncleanness and to lawlessness, [leading] unto lawlessness, thus now stand upaorist imperative; as an order, insists that something be done discretely (i.e., “on a particular occasion”) your limbs as slaves to justice, [leading] unto sanctification. 20For because [you] were slaves of error, [you] were free for justice. 21Therefore what fruit were [you] then holding? Upon which [things] [you] are now ashamed,q for the end of those [things] [is] death.r 22But now having been set free from the error, and [rather] having been enslaved to God, [you] have your fruit [leading] unto sanctification, and [you have] the end, eternal life.s 23For the wages of error [are] death, but the favor of God [is] eternal life in Christ Jesus our lord.t

a Should [we] tarry…more than enough: cf. Romans 3:5-8
b Whichever [of us]…live in it: cf. I Peter 4:1
c as many as were baptized: cf. Galatians 3:27
d verse 4: cf. Colossians 2:12
e verse 5: cf. Philippians 3:10-11
f that our old…man was co-crucified: cf. Galatians 5:24
g verse 7: cf. I Peter 4:1
h died to error…once for all: cf. Hebrews 9:26-28; I Peter 3:18
i but on the…lives for God: cf. Galatians 2:19
j verse 11: cf. II Corinthians 5:15; I Peter 2:24
k stand yourselves up for God: cf. Romans 12:1
l as if [the]…of [the] dead: cf. Ephesians 2:5; 5:14
m For your error…will not reign: cf. I John 3:6
n Should [we] err…come to be: cf. Romans 5:17, 21
o verse 16: cf. John 8:34; II Peter 2:19
p but having been…from the error: cf. John 8:32
q Upon which [things]…are now ashamed: cf. Ezekiel 16:61, 63
r for the end…[things] [is] death: cf. Romans 7:5; 8:6, 13
s and [you have]…end, eternal life: cf. I Peter 1:9
t verse 23: cf. Romans 5:12, 15

Romans 5

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Therefore, having been justified [on a particular occasion] out of belief,a [we] havesome manuscripts: let us have peace before God through our lord Jesus Christ, 2through whom also [we] have had the solemn approachlit. the act of bringing / raising something up (as if to eat)b [by belief]some manuscripts omit unto this grace in which [we] have stood, and [we] boasthere and in verse 3, the same construction could mean let us boast upon hope of the glory of God. 3And not only [this], but also [we] boast in the afflictions,lit. pressures knowingBy this point in history, this verb in this construction always means “to know”; but etymologically, it comes from the perfect tense of “to see”; thus, here it means, having seen that affliction works athere and throughout, (achieves by labor) endurance,lit. the remaining-behindc 4and endurance [works at] character,lit. proof and character [works at] hope. 5And hope does not dishonor,d because the loveἀγάπη, agape of God has been poured out in our hearts through a holy spirit, the [one] having been given [on a particular occasion] to us. 6For furthermore, Christ, with us still beinggenitive absolute weak,(sickly)other manuscripts:
– for furthermore, Christ, with us being weak,
– furthermore, Christ, with us being weak,
– if at least Christ, with us still being weak,
– unto some [end], Christ, with us still being weak,
– unto some [end], Christ, with us being weak,
– Christ, with us being weak,
died according to due measure(at [the] exact time) on behalf ofhere and throughout, lit. over [the] ungodly. 7For someone will die on behalf of a just [man]; for, on behalf of the good [man], someone also dares to die; 8but on the other hand, God combines his own loveἀγάπη, agape into us, that with us still being erroneous,here and throughout, (sinners) Christ died on our behalf.e 9Therefore, having been very much justified [on a particular occasion] now in his blood, [we] shall be saved through him from [his] wrath.lit. impulsef 10For if, being hateful,(hated) [we] were changedhere and through the end of the paragraph, (reconciled) [on a particular occasion] by God through the death of his son, then, having been changed very much, [we] will be saved in his life;g 11and not only [this], but also [we are] boasting in God through our lord Jesus Christ, through whom now [we] seized [on a particular occasion] the change.(reconciliation)

12On account of this, just as through one man, failure came into the cosmosh [on a particular occasion], and through failure, deathi [came into the cosmos], and thus into all menhere and through the end of the chapter, (persons) death came through,(passed through, reached) upon which [point/time] all [men] died; 13for until [the] law, failure was in [the] cosmos, but [on the other hand] failure is not put in the account with [the] law not being,(without [the] law)j 14but death ruled from Adam as far as Moses evenlit. and upon the [ones] not erring inlit. upon the transgression of Adam, who is a cast(model / type); lit. beating of the [one] being destined.k

15But (the favor is not like the blunder);lit. not as the blunder, thus also [is] the favor for if to the blunder of one [man], the many died, much morelit. very much the grace of God and the gift in grace, [that is, in] the [grace] of the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many. 16And [it did] not [abound] as the gift through the one [man] having failed [on a particular occasion]; for on the one hand, the judgment fromlit. out of one [blunder] [leads] unto condemnation, but on the other hand, the gift from many blunders [leads] unto justification.lit. a just [act] 17For if, by the blunder of the one [man], death ruled through the one [man], much morelit. very much the [ones] seizing in [this] life the abundance of the grace and [the abundance] of the gift of justice will rule through the one Jesus Christ. 18Then therefore as through one blunder into all men [it has come] unto condemnation, thus also through one just [act] into all men [it has come] unto justification of life;l 19for just as through the disobediencelit. misunderstanding of the one man, the many becamehere and in the next clause, lit. were put/set down [as] erroneous, thus also through the obedience of the one [man], the many will become just.m 20But [the] law came in alongside, in order that the blunder might be more than enough;(superfluous)n but where the error was more than enough, grace over-abounded,(abounded even more) 21in order that, just as the error ruled in death, thus also grace may rule through justice unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our lord.o

a having been justified…out of belief: cf. Romans 3:24, 28
b through whom also…the solemn approach: cf. Ephesians 2:18; 3:12
c verse 3: cf. James 1:2-3; I Peter 1:5-7
d And hope does not dishonor: cf. Psalm 22:5; 25:20; Hebrews 6:18-19
e verse 8: cf. John 3:16; I John 4:10
f [we] shall be…from [his] wrath: cf. Romans 1:18; 2:5, 8
g verse 10: cf. Romans 8:7-8
h through one man…into the cosmos: cf. Genesis 2:17; 3:6, 19
i through failure, death: cf. Romans 6:23
j but [on the…law not being: cf. Romans 4:15
k who is a…[one] being destined: cf. I Corinthians 15:21-22, 45
l verse 18: cf. I Corinthians 15:22
m thus also through…will become just: cf. Isaiah 53:11
n But [the] law…more than enough: cf. Romans 4:15; 7:8; Galatians 3:19
o verse 21: cf. Romans 6:23

Romans 4

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1What therefore do [we] say that Abraham, our forefather according to flesh, has found?indirect statement using accusative + infinitive constructionsome manuscripts: that Abraham, our father according to flesh, has found?; others: that Abraham [is] our forefather according to flesh?; others: that Abraham [is] our father according to flesh? 2For if Abraham out of works was justified [on a particular occasion], [he] has a boast, but not before God. 3For what does the writingi.e., Scripture say? “But Abraham believed God [on a particular occasion] and [it] was calculatedhere, and throughout, (counted) for him unto justice.”here, and throughout, (righteousness)a 4But on the other hand, to the [one] working, the pay is not calculated according to grace, but according to debt,b 5but to the [one] not working, but rather believing upon the [one] justifying the ungodly, his beliefhere, and throughout, (faith) is calculated unto justice; 6exactly as-περ strengthens καθά, which normally means “just as” David saysc [about] the blessing of the person to whom God calculates justice separate from works, 7“Blessed [are they] whose lawlessnesses were sent away and whose errorshere and throughout, (sins) were covered up [on a particular occasion]; 8blessed [is the] man whose error the lord [absolutely] will not countοὐ μὴ + future indicative is an emphatic denial, so this could also be translated will never count/calculate.” 9[Is] this blessing, therefore, upon [only] the circumcision, or also upon the uncircumcision? For we say, “Belief was calculated for Abraham unto justice.”d 10How therefore was it calculated? To [him] being in the circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision but in uncircumcision; 11and he took the mark of circumcision as a seal(sign); lit. signet of the justice of belief, the belief [while] in uncircumcision,e in order that he may behere and in the next clause, εἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause a father of all the [ones] believing through uncircumcision, in order that justice may be calculated [on a particular occasion] for them [also],some manuscripts omit 12and [in order that he may be] a father of the circumcisedlit. circumcision, for the [ones] not [included] out of circumcision only, but also for them being in line with the footsteps of the belief of our father Abraham, [the belief he had while] in uncircumcision.

13For not through [the] law [did] the promiselit. command, summons (as in court) [come] to Abraham or to his seed,f that he is the heir of [the] cosmos,g but through [the] justice of belief. 14For if the heirs [are heirs] out of [the] law, the belief has been emptied and the promise has been abolished;lit. left unusedh 15for the law works at(achieves by labor) wrath;lit. impulse but on the other hand,some manuscripts: for where there is not a law, neither [is there] an overstepping.i 16On account of this, [justice is] from belief, in order that [it may be]ἴνα + implied subjunctive verb purpose clause according to grace, in order that the promise may beεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause steady(firm / sure / certain) for every seed, not only for the [one] from the law, but also for the [one] from [the] belief of Abraham,indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew, so genitive case is assumed; with its placement, it could hypothetically also modify νόμου, the law, and σπέρματι, the seed who is a father of us all,j 17just as [it] is writtenk that “I have put you as a father of many nations,” beforelit. opposite [the one] in whom [he] believed [on a particular occasion], God, the [one] making the dead alive and calling the [things] not being as being;l 18who believed beyond hope upon hope in order that he may becomeεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause “a father of many nations” according to the word,lit. the [thing] having been said “Thus will be your seed,”m 19and not having been weak [on a particular occasion] in belief, [he] consideredsome manuscripts: did not consider his own flesh having [already] been made dead, [since he was] existing about one hundred years,n and [he considered] the death of the womb [of] Sarah;like Ἀβραάμ, Σάρρας is an indeclinable transliteration of Hebrew; genitive case is assumed by context 20but [he] did not waverlit. was not thoroughly separated [on any particular occasion] to unbelief unto the promise of God, but [he] was empowered with belief, having given[on a particular occasion] glory to God 21and having been fully satisfied[on a particular occasion] that the [one] powerful to promise is also [powerful] to do.(make / enact) 22Wherefore [also]some manuscripts omit “[it] was calculated for him unto justice.”o 23But [it] was not written on his account only, [i.e.,] that [it] was calculated for him, 24but also on our account,p for whom [it] is destined to be calculated, for the [ones] [of us] believing upon the [one] having roused Jesus our Lord out of [the] dead,q 25who was handed over [on a particular occasion] on account of our blunders(missteps)r and was roused(awoke) [on a particular occasion] on account of our justification.s

a But Abraham believed…him unto justice: Genesis 15:6; cf. Galatians 3:6; James 2:23
b verse 4: cf. Romans 11:6
c says: Psalm 32:1-2
d Belief was calculated…Abraham unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
e he took the…[while] in uncircumcision: cf. Genesis 17:10-11
f to his seed: cf. Galatians 3:29
g that he is…of [the] cosmos: cf. Genesis 18:18; 22:17-18
h verse 14: cf. Galatians 3:18
i there is not…there] an overstepping: cf. Romans 3:20; 5:13; 7:8
j for the [one]…of us all: cf. Galatians 3:7
k written: Genesis 17:5
l calling the [things]…being as being: cf. Isaiah 48:13
m Thus will be your seed: cf. Genesis 15:5
n [since he was]…one hundred years: cf. Genesis 17:17
o [it] was calculated…him unto justice: cf. verse 3 above
p But [it] was…on our account: cf. Romans 15:4
q the [one] having…of [the] dead: cf. I Peter 1:21
r who was handed…of our blunders: cf. Isaiah 53:4-5
s was roused [on…of our justification: cf. I Corinthians 15:17