Romans 2

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page.

1Wherefore [thou] are (inexcusable / undefended), O every person who judges(who chooses, who condemns); lit. judging; for in what [thou] judge anotherlit. the different [one], [thou] hand down judgment to(condemn) thyself,a for [thou] practice the same [things] [which thou judge]lit. judging which. 2But [on the other hand] we know that the judgment of God is according to truthWe can be sure that this judgment is accurate and final–but it is still not our place to pass it. about the ones practicing [things] such as these. 3But [on the other hand] do [thou] consider(calculate) this, O person, the [one] judging the [ones] doing [things] such as these and [himself] doing them, that thou will flee the judgment of God?This is an indirect question, not a deliberative subjunctive. This should not be translated, “should thou flee the judgment of God?” Reader take note: if you can pass judgment on others, how can you think to escape the true judgment of God? Cf. Matthew 18. 4Or do [thou] think little oflit. look down upon the wealth of his goodness and of [his] forbearancelit. holding-back and of [his] long-suffering, not recognizing(not conceptualizing) that the good [thing] of God leads thou into repentance?b 5But [on the other hand] according to thy hardness and [thy] unrepentant heart, [thou] hoard for thyself wrath in a day of wrath and [in a day] of a revelationlit. an uncovering of [the] righteous judgment of God, 6who will restorelit. give up to each according to his deeds;c 7to the [ones] seeking according to endurancelit. remaining-behindI.e., without ceasing, always pressing on, heedless of hindrance and undaunted by danger. [the] glory of a good deed and [the] honor [of a good deed] and immortality(incorruption), [he will restore] eternal lifelit. life lasting an age; “agelong = eternal” is idiomatic by this point; there is no “secret meaning” having to do with ages or numerology here; 8[on the other hand] to the [ones] also being disobedient out of selfish ambition to the truth [and rather] being persuaded to injustice, wrath and passion(anger) [will be given]As elsewhere in his writings, Paul “forgets” the structure of his sentence and switches the case of his parallel ideas, here changing to the nominative.. 9Pressure and confinement [will be given] unto every life(spirit) of man, the [one] working at the bad,d both Jewish first and Greek;e 10but glorylit. expectation / notion and honor and peace [will be given] to everyone working at the good, both to Jewish first and to Greek; 11for [there] is not respect of persons(favoritism) at God’s house.(beside God / next to God)f 12For as many as erredhere and throughout, (sinned) [on a particular occasion] lawlessly, they will also be utterly destroyed lawlessly, and as many as erred [on a particular occasion] in [the] law, they will be judgedlit. separated through [the] law; 13for the hearers of [the] law [are] not just(righteous) at God’s house,(beside God / next to God) but the doers of [the] law will be justified(pronounced righteous).g 14For whenever peoples,here and below, (nations) the [ones] not having [the] law, do the [things] of the law by nature,instrumental dative these [peoples], not having [the] law, are a law unto themselves;h 15whosoever indicates the work of the law [to be] written on their hearts, withgenitive absolute their conscience supporting themhere, αὐτῶν is both a possessive genitive modifying τῆς συνειδήσεως and the gentive object of συμμαρτυρούσης, but only appears once and, [alternating] between one and the other, withgenitive absolute [their] thoughts accusing or else also defending [them], 16on [the] day when God judges the secret [things] of men according to my gospeli through Christ Jesussome manuscripts: Jesus Christ, others: Jesus Christ our Lord.

17But [on the other hand] if thou call [thyself] Jewish and rely upon [the] law and boastlit. speak loudly in God 18and [thou] perceive the will and [thou] approvelit. test the [things] that make a difference,lit. differing / carrying acrossj teaching [them] out of the law, 19and [thou] has persuaded thyself to be a guide of [the] blind,k a light of the [ones] in darkness, an educator of [the] senseless, a teacher of infants, having the form of the knowledge and of the truth in the law;l 21[as], therefore, the [one] teaching another, do [thou] not teach thyself? [As] the [one] proclaiming not to steal, do [thou] steal?m 22[As] the [one] sayinglit. choosing; again, this is idiomatic long before the time of the New Testament not to commit adultery, do [thou] commit adultery? [As] the [one] feeling sick at(loathing) idols,lit. phantoms do [thou] rob temples?(commit sacrilege) 23[As] the [one] who boastslit. speaks loudly in [the] law, do [thou] through the transgressionlit. deviation of the law dishonor the God [of the law]?Here, τοῦ νόμου modifies both τῆς παραβάσεως and τὸν θεόν, though it only appears once 24For “the name of God, through you, is blasphemed in the nations,”n just as [it] is written. 25For [on the one hand] circumcision is a help, ifhere, as immediately following, a present general conditional [thou] practice [the] law; but if, [on the other hand], [thou] are a transgressor of [the] law, thy circumcision becomes uncircumcisionhere and throughout, lit. a foreskin.o 26If,future more vivid conditional therefore, the uncircumcisionhere and the subject of v27, metonymy keepslit. guards the righteous acts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be counted aslit. into circumcision?p 27And the uncircumcision from his nature,probably meaning “in the body,” but perhaps also, “from birth” fulfilling the law, will judge thee, the [one] through [the] letter and [the] circumcision [who is a] transgressor of [the] law.some manuscripts pose this verse as a question 28For it is not the [one] [who is Jewish] in the visible [that] is Jewish, nor is circumcision in the visible [and] in [the] flesh,q 29but the [one] [who is Jewish] in secret [is] Jewish, and [the] circumcision of [the] heart [is] in [the] spiritr [and] not [in the] letter, in which placelit. where; i.e., the spirit approval [comes] not from men but from God.s

a for in what…judgment to thyself: cf. Matthew 7:2; Luke 6:37; John 8:7
b the good [thing]…thou into repentance: cf. II Peter 3:15
c verse 6: cf. Psalm 62:12; Proverbs 24:12; Sirach 16:14; Matthew 16:27; John 5:29; II Corinthians 5:10
d Pressure and confinement…at the bad: cf. II Thessalonians 1:8
e both Jewish first and Greek: cf. Romans 1:16
f verse 11: cf. Deuteronomy 10:17; II Chronicles 19:7; Acts 10:34; Galatians 2:6; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:25; I Peter 1:17
g verse 13: cf. Matthew 7:21; James 1:22, 25; I John 3:7
h verse 14: cf. Acts 10:35
i according to my gospel: cf. II Timothy 2:8
j [thou] approve the…make a difference: cf. Philippians 1:10
k and [thou] has…of [the] blind: cf. Matthew 15:14; Luke 18:9
l having the form…in the law: cf. II Timothy 3:15
m verse 21: cf. Psalm 50:16-21; Matthew 23:3-4
n the name of…in the nations: cf. Isaiah 52:5; Ezekiel 36:20
o but if, [on…circumcision becomes uncircumcision: cf. Jeremiah 4:4; 9:25
p verse 26: cf. Galatians 5:6
q verse 28: cf. John 7:24; 8:15, 39
r [the] circumcision of…in [the] spirit: cf. Deuteronomy 30:6; Colossians 2:11
s approval [comes] not…but from God: cf. I Corinthians 4:5; II Corinthians 10:18